Flashcards in SOS Study Deck (22):
What is a Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit (IROL)
A System Operating Limit that, if violated, could lead to instability, uncontrolled seperation, or Cascading outages that adversely impact the reliability of the Bulk Electric
What is a System Operating Limit (SOL)
The value (such as MW, MVar, Amperes, Frequency or Volts) that satisfies the most limiting of the prescribed operating
What is Impedance
A measure of the total opposition to current flow in an alternating current circuit. It has two components; resistance and reactance
What is Phase Angle
The angular separation between the current and voltage cycles
What is Power Angle
The voltage angular difference between two locations in the power system
The AVR regulates the amount of DC applied to the?
Real power or MW's flow in which direction?
from the higher power angle to the lower power angle (could also be said higher voltage angel to lower voltage angle)
Reactive power or MVAR flow in which direction
from the higher voltage magnitude to the lower voltage magnitude
Impedance is made up of?
Capacitance, Inductance and Resistance
What is steady state stability
when the system parameters such as voltage, frequency and power flows may be changing but the changes are small and occur gradually
What is Transient stability
the ability of the power system to overcome a situation where a sudden, large change takes place on the sytem without violating SOL's. Could be a loss of generator and sever system fault.
What is Transient Instability
when the power system operates at an angle of 90 degress or more can be caused when heavy power transfers occur in the system as with a loss of genreation
Generator ratings specify the __________ and ___________ at which they can operate safely
voltage and frequency
What part of the operating reserve is used to meet CPS
What part of operating reserve is used to meet DCS
Contingency reserve, spin and non spin
If two systems are severely out of synch (large frequency difference) what is likely to be reported on the synced scope
A vibrating indicating needle
Firm load shed for continuity of the BES of how much MW's needs to be reported to NERC
100 MW or more
Loss of firm load > or = to ___________ requires reporting to NERC
Entities with > or = to 3000 MW reports loss of > or = 300 MW.
All other entities report loss of > or = 200 MW or 50% of total demand
Loss reported within 24 hours
Firm load reporting is how much to NERC
> or = 100 MW report time is 24 hrs
Which entities may determine the deviation of a dynamic schedule constitutes reliability concern? Who do they notify?
RC or TO and notify the PSE
Emergency plans should be review and updated by the TO and BA how often?