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Flashcards in Resource and Demand Balancing Deck (55):

The primary obligation of a BA is to

control generation to balance load and interchange and to help regulate and stabilize the frequency of the interconnection


What tool does the BA have to see if they are meeting their obligation?



The minimum compliance for CPS1 is



It is necessary that at least 50% of both ACE and frequency deviation samples during the one-minute interval be present to determine CPS1 compliance if not that one-minute interval will be....



CPS2 reflects the BA obligation to minimize what?

large unscheduled power flows exceeding the BA's L sub 10 value


CPS1 and CPS2 is calculated and reported how often?

each calendar month


CPS2 Minimum and Maximum compliance is

90% and 100%


the BA providing overlap regulation take responsibility for

CPS1, tie lines, frequency response and schedules


If the BA's ACE is zero it is in compliance with what?



What is the purpose of DCS (Disturbance Control Standard)

Ensure BA is able to utilize contingency reserve - Balance resource and demand - Return Interconnection frequency within defined limits following a reportable disturbance


Contingency reserves on jointly owned units can be claimed by how many BA's in a reserve sharing group



Contingency reserve activation applies to what?

loss of generation, does not apply to loss of load


How long does a BA have to recover from a reportable disturbance?

15 mins to recover ACE then 90 mins to recover reserves.


Non spin contingency reserves may be supplied from where?

quick start generation, controllable load resources or coordinated adjustments to interchange schedules (non firm sales being cut)


What are the types of reserves?

Operating reserves which consists of (spin and non spin) and also Regulating Reserves. Contingency reserves is a subset of operating reserves


How much contingency reserves are BA's required to carry.

enough to cover their most severe single contingency


Any event that is greater to or equal to ____ of the MSSC is a reportable event



Events greater than 100% of MSSC are

reportable events but there are no penalties for failure to meet DCS


If two generators trip within _____ of each other this is treated as a single event

60 seconds


What happens when during a DCS event, a BA loses another big generator during the 15mins recovery period.

The 2nd generator lost will be excluded from the evaluation and the BA will be evaluated by an estimate of its response if the 2nd generator didn't trip.


What happens when during a DSC event a BA loses another big generator during the 90 mins contingency reserve period?

The loss has to be reported and the BA should try to recover. The BA can request a waiver if they do no have sufficient reserves due to previous contingencies.


Each reserve sharing group is considered in a disturbance when...

a group member has experienced a reportable disturbance and calls for activation of contingency reserves from one or more group members


DCS requires what compliance?

100% and is reported quarterly


In an event a BA doesnt meet the DCS standard, what is the penalty?

The BA shall increase it's contingency reserves for the following quarter


MSSC is reviewed how often by a BA

at least annually


a ___ decrease in frequency will result in a _____ decrease in load

1 % ..... 2%


What is the frequency response characteristic used to determine?

The proper frequency bias in the ACE equation


What is the equation to determine how a generator will respond with droop setting

generator rating over droop setting in HZ = MW response (x) over difference in frequency. then cross multiply.
500mw/3hz = X/.05 (freq. goes from 60 to 59.95hz)


If BA has frequency bias setting above frequency response characteristic

ACE will be negative and AGC responds by increasing generation. resulting in an increase in inadvertent interchange


If BA has frequency bias setting below frequency response characteristic

ACE will be positive and AGC will respond by reducing generation. The result is a decrease contribution to arresting the frequency decay


What control system arrest frequency decline

Generator governor control


AGC _______ and _________ adjusts a BA's generation in response to changes.

automatically and economically


What is a Dynamic Schedule?

A telemetered reading or value that is updated in real time. It is represented in the NIs portion of the ACE equation


What is a Pseudo tie?

A telemetered reading or value that is updated in real time and used as a virtual tie-line flow in the AGC/ACE equation, but where no physical tie or energy metering actuallu exists. it si represented in the NIa portion of the ACE equation


If a BA cannot calculate ACE for more then _________ the appropriate ______ must be notified

30 mins, RC


What are the 3 AGC control modes

tie-line bias, flat or constant frequency control and flat or constant interchange control


flat frequency control is used when

A BA is isolated or islanded or the status of the tie lines are uncertain


flat interchange control is used when

the frequency signal is unavailable


what is the most common mode of AGC

tie-line bias


AGC uses the ACE equation to...

minimize inadvertent interchange and provide frequency support to the interconnection


common mwh meters provide readings to..

the control centers of both adjacent BA's


If a BA is providing regulating services for another BA, and for some reason can no longer provide that service who is notified?

the host BA and any intermediate BA's that might be affected


what are the two types of Inadvertent Interchage

Primary and secondary


What causes primary inadvertent

human error, scheduling errors and metering errors


What causes secondary inadvertent

frequency support, regulation and governor response


What are the two ways of inadvertent interchange payback?

Bilateral or Unilateral


What is Bilateral Payback

paid back using an interchange schedule with another BA


What is Unilateral Payback

paid back by unilaterally controlling to a target of non zero ACE


how often is inadvertent interchange calculated and recorded



3 BA's share the output of a jointly owned generator using dynamics reserves. How do the BA's account for the unit when calculating their frequency bias?

Include their respective share of the unit governor droop response


two BA's equally share a generator located in the Host BA's area. the receiver gets its share of the unit via a fixed schedule. how should the 2 BA's treat the shared unti when determining their frequency bias setting?

the host BA should include all of the units frequency response in its bias setting, the receiver should exclude it


what must be included in the scheduled interchanges values used to calculate ACE

the effect of ramp rates


Each BA by the end of the next business day shall agree with its adjacent BA's to...

the hourly values of Net interchange schedule and the hourly integrated mwh values of net actual interchange


BA providing Overlap regulation.....

Incorporates another BA's actual interchange, frequency response and schedules into their ACE equation..also a BA that is supplying overlap regulation shall increase its frequency bias setting to match the frequency response of the entire area being controlled.


BA proving supplemental regulation....

The BA proving the regulation receives a signal representing all or a portion of the other BA ACE.....a BA shall not change it frequency bias setting when performing supplemental regulation service