Flashcards in System Operations Deck (27):
If sabotage occurs on Transmission system, who should be notified
Per COM-001, telecommunication shall be
redundant and diversely routed
NERC requires what language to be universally used when communicating among operators/RC's of the BES
What is NERCnet
a wide area network using frame relay as its communications medium
Per COM-002, requires each TO, BA and GO to have communications with appropriate RC's, BA's and TO's. These communications include?
both voice and data links
Who is notified when a condition threatens the reliability of its area or when firm load shedding is anticipated?
The RC and all other potentially affected BA's and TO's
When testing telecommunications channels, special attention should be given to emergency telecommunications facilities and....
equipment not used for routine communications
Which entities are expected by NERC to issue directives in a clear, concise and definitive manner?
RC's, TO's and BA's
PER-005 specifies the requirement for emergency operations training is...
32 hours annually
PER-001 requires TO's and BA's must have the ________ and _______ to implement real-time actions to ensure the stable and reliable operation of the BES
responsibility and authority
PER-003 NERC requires that TO's, BA's and RC's who fill a real-time operating position be.....
What is Generator Shift Factor
A factor to be applied to a generator’s expected change in
output to determine the amount of flow contribution that
change in output will impose on an identified transmission
facility or Flowgate
Power Transfer Distribution Factor
In the pre-contingency configuration of a system under
study, a measure of the responsiveness or change in
electrical loadings on transmission system Facilities due to
a change in electric power transfer from one area to
another, expressed in percent (up to 100%) of the change
in power transfer. Can be expressed -100 to +100
To determine the power transfer distribution factor you take the....
amount of MW reduction needed and divide it by the percentage of the lines PTDF.... example 100mw reduction on a line with 70% PTSD 100\.7 = 143MW
how to figure out generation shift factors (GSF)
GSF=[(change in path flow) \ (change in generation)] x 100
If a generation shift factor is a negative it...
an increase in generation would result in a decrease in transmission line flow, thus relieves line loading, this is because typically the generation increase is close to load
The amount of relief determined by generation shift factor is..
Take the amount of overload and divide it by the GSF
If a generations shift factor is positive it...
with decreased generation it will relieve loading on the transmission line
How to determine MW impact using GSF's
MW Impact = Genration MW x GSF
How does a generation shift factor of .2 affect the transmission line
20% of any generation change will be reflected on the transmission line's flow
When there are two generators to adjust using GSF what is the equation
Amount of relief (overload) / shift factor A - shift factor B this will be the change in generation for generator B
Outage Transfer Distribution Factors help system operators...
estimate the effect of an outages transmission elements
When power flow is expected to reach or exceed a SOL, what is one of the first things an operator can do.
Redistribute power flow to relieve the overload... i.e. generation re-dispatch
Vital telecommunications facilities shall be..
managed, alarmed , tested and/or actively monitored
How to determine difference between vandalism and sabotage
SOL's are determined by
- Setting appropriate voltage levels to withstand various contingencies - Identifying equipment loading capability before excessive heat degrades their function - Recognizing stability limitations