Flashcards in EOPS Deck (42):
Interruptible Load or Interruptible Demand
Demand that the end-use customer makes available to its Load-Serving Entity via contract or agreement for curtailment
BA's shall have operating agreements with who?
adjacents BA's, these contain provisions for emergency assistance including support from remote BA's (BA's that do not touch your BA boundary)
What is the primary objective of each BA during a capacity or energy emergency?
return ACE to an acceptable value
The development of emergency load reduction plan for all IROL violation is the responsibility of who?
What are the 4 types of plans each TO and BA are required to develop, maintain and implement
Generation shortage capacity, transmission systems emergency, load shedding and system restoration
What are required to be in the plans
communication protocols, control actions (things that will resolve emergency), coordination with other BA's and TO's and staffing levels
each emergency plan is updated how often
annually, and plans are provided to RC and neighboring TO's and BA's
______ is the rated continuous load carrying ability of generation, transmission or other electrical equipment expressed in MW
What are the four things a BA must do prior to having an EEA declared
Bring on all available generation, postpone equipment maint., scheduling interchange purchases in advance, being prepared to shed firm load load.
When using voltage reduction for energy emergencies, what is the rule of thumb.
a 5% reduction in voltage results in a 3% reduction in load
When an EEA is issued what does the RC do?
Start actions to mitigate the emergency (request emergency assistance if needed) and notify all BA's and TSP in its area also notify all other RC's
There are two reasons an LSE would require an EEA
They cannot locate available resources to purchase and they cannot schedule due to available transmission limitations
all available resources are committed to meet firm load, firm transactions and reserve commitments and non firm wholesale sales have been curtailed.
no longer able to provides the customers expected energy requirements and has started procedures to make up the insufficient energy, like public appeals, voltage reduction, interruptible loads
firm customer load is being shed, during EEA3 the deficient BA must give hourly updates to the RC
What are the two types of automatic load shedding
undervolatge and underfrequency
describe undervolatge load shed
load shed that is designed to prevent local area voltage collapse from lack of reactive resources
describe underfrequency load shed
load that is shed to re-balance load and generation within an electrical island caused by a system disturbance
low frequency causes damage to what kind of turbine
low pressure blades in steam turbine
UVLS is designed to drop loads in
Each Transmission Operator and Balancing Authority shall establish plans for automatic load shedding for __________ or ___________ conditions
underfrequency or undervoltage
Which entities has the responsibility to establish plans for load shedding
TO and BA
why are reports sent to NERC
to note lessons learned and implement corrective actions
timeframe an entity has to report to NERC
initial report is due 24hrs, except if it's an IROL violation then its 72 hours. final report due in 60 days
NERC reporting guildlines are
system sepration, firm load shed of 100mw or more, IROL violation, operator error, loss of generation, loss of BES component affecting system integrity, equip. failures or system operational actions resulting in loss of firm system demands for more than 15 mins.
An unplanned event that produces an abnormal system condition or any perturbation to the electric system or the unexpected change in ACE that is caused by the sudden failure of generation or interruption of load
entity experiencing a reportable incident shall provide a preliminary written report to
NERC & RRO
TO's shall have restoration plans in the event of partial or total system shutdown, plans must be....
updated to reflect changes, reviewed at least annually, developed for restoring interconnection and coordinated with neighboring systems
if load must be shed in an island and good rule of thumb is
shed 6-10% of connected load will increase frequency by 1hz
when restoring load in an island. how much load to be restored at one time.
5% of online generations capacity
if you are in a island trying to pick up load and there is one 1000 MW generator online generating 500MW, how much load could you pick up?
50MW, 5% of 1000
When re-synchronizing what are the 3 things that are measured
Phase angle. voltage and frequency...if possible phase angle should be 10 derees or less
what are some things an operator can do when syncing two islands together when there is a large phase angle
re-dispatch generation, change system configuration, shed load
True or False: the RC is required to have an RC area restoration plan
What document must RCs sign because of market transaction
NERC Reliability Coordinator Standards of Conduct
Re-synchronizing with the interconnection should only be attempted where
breaker with sync check or generating plant
are reliability entities required to have a backup control center
no, but they are required to have plan to continue reliable operations, including procedures to address the loss of voice and data...... primary control center is also not required to have redundant power supply
What must be included in a plan for the loss of a primary control center
basic-tie line control, hourly accounting of all schedules, time and frequency control
Implementation of the Capacity and Emergency plan is required and appropriate to
reduce risk to the interconnected system
Verification of the restoration procedure shall be confirmed by
actual testing or by simulation
If a Transmission Operator operates a system at a voltage of less than 100 kV, and experiences a restoration event, does this change the Reliability Coordinator's role in the restoration process
no, Standard EOP-006 does not address specific voltage requirements when discussing the role of the Reliability Coordinator in the restoration process