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Flashcards in Spinal 2 Exam 2 Week 2 Deck (40):

How many joints are typically formed at the vertebral body of T12?

Typically 8; ten if the rib ligaments are included.


Which muscle(s) is attached to the vertebral body of T12?

Psoas major and psoas minor


What does the superior tubercle of T12 represent?

The mammillary process of lumbar vertebrae.


What ligaments form the costotransverse joint of the twelfth rib?

The superior costotransverse ligament from T11 and the lumbocostal ligament from L1.


What is the orientation of the inferior articular facets of T12?

They face forward, downward, and lateral.


What muscles attach to the spinous process of T12?

The trapezius, latissimus dorsi, serratus posterior inferior, iliocostalis lumborum, spinalis thoracic, multifidus, rotator longus, rotator brevis and interspinalis.


Which erector spinae muscle is unique in its attachment to the T12 spinous process?

Iliocostalis lumborum


Which muscles attach to the vertebral body of thoracic vertebrae?

Longus Colli, psoas major, and minor.


What accounts for the direction of the lumbar curve?

The vertebral body and intervertebral disc have a greater anterior height than posterior height.


What muscles may attach to a typical lumbar vertebral body?

Psoas major, psoas minor.


What is the name given to ligaments which attach vertebral body to articular process?

Transforaminal ligaments


What ligaments attach the vertebral body to the transverse process?

Corporotransverse ligaments


What is the proposed function of the Hofmann ligaments in the cervical-upper thoracic region?

Resist caudal movement of the dural sac; resist gravitational forces on the dura and cord.


What osseous conditions of lumbar vertebrae facilitate a spinal tap in this region?

Overlap of the laminae, shingling, diminishes; overlap of spinous processes, imbrication, diminishes.


A styloid process occurs with what frequency and as a result of what condition?

7% occurrence as a result of congenital elongation of the lumbar accessory process.


What was believed to be entrapped by the mammillo-accessory ligament?

The medial branch of the dorsal ramus of the lumbar spinal nerve


What muscle(s) attach to the lumbar accessory process?

Longissimus thoracis and intertransversarii


What muscle(s) will attach to the mammillary process?

Multifidis and intertransversarii


What names are given to the condition in which the right zygapophysis of a vertebral couple lies in a plane or position different from the left zygapophysis?

Joint asymmetry or joint tropism


What is the name(s) of the condition when the typical lumbar spinous process increase in length due to the aging process?

Baastrup's syndrome or "kissing spines"


What ligaments attach to the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

The lumbosacral, iliolumbar, mammillo-accessory and intertransverse ligaments.


What is the name given to the congenital condition in which the fifth lumbar spinous process is elongated, the sacrum exhibits spina bifida, and dorsiflexion produces pain?

Knife clasp syndrome


Lumbar spondylosis has not been reported in what groups of individuals?

Fetuses, newborns, rarely in children under five years old, patients who have never walked and in on-erect species.


What is the appearance of a spondylolysis in a lumbar vertebra upon oblique x-ray view.

A collared Scotty dog.


What characteristics are associated with cervical spondylolysis?

Rare, congenital , gender biased toward men, most common at c6 and linked to spodylolisthesis and spina bifida.


Identify all names given to type 1 spondylolisthesis?

Dysplastic spodylolisthesis, congenital spodylolisthesis.


What gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions are associated with type 2 spondylolisthesis?

Isthmic spondylolisthesis is common in men, located at the L5/S1 level and demonstrates an increase in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal.


What is the gender bias, locational bias, and spinal canal dimensions changes often associated with type 3 spondylolisthesis?

Degenerative spondylolisthesis is more common in women, particularly at L4/L5, and demonstrates no change in sagittal diameter of the spinal canal.


What causes type 4 spondylolisthesis?

Fracture of the neural arch components.


What are the cause(s) associated with type V spondylolisthesis?

Bone diseases such as Paget disease or osteogenesis imperfecta.


What features may be identified along the intermediate sacral crest?

The mammillary process of S1 and the sacral Cornu of S5


What features may be identified along the lateral sacral crest?

S1 transverse tubercle, sacral tuberosity of S2, transverse tubercles of S3, S4 and S5.


What is the name of the joint formed by the sacral tuberosity?

The accessory sacro-iliac joint.


What feature does the anterior surface of the superior epiphyseal rim of S1 form?

The sacral promontory.


What forms the posterior boundary for the first coccygeal spinal nerve intervertebral foramen?

Sacral Cornu, coccygeal cornu, superficial dorsal sacral coccygeal ligament, intercornual ligament.


What forms the inferior boundary for the spinal canal?

The union of the superficial dorsal and deep dorsal sacrococcygeal ligament.


Superior articular facets of which vertebrae will be oriented backward, upward, and medial?

C1, C3-C7, L1-L5, S1


Superior articular facets of which segments will be oriented backward, upward and lateral?

C2, T1-T12.


Inferior articular facets of which segments will be oriented forward, lateral and downward?

C2-C6, T12, L1-L5


What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?

Atlas assimilation