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Flashcards in Spinal 2 Exam 4 Wk 3 Deck (50):

What is the location for a spinal nerve secondary parasympathetic efferent neuron?

Typically an intramural ganglion or neural plexus


Which splanchnic nerves contain preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers?

nervi erigentes or pelvic splanchnic nerves


Do spinal nerves typically contain postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers?

No, they are in the wall of the target organ and therefore not in spinal nerves


What are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine?

the vertebral artery, ascending cervical artery and deep cervical artery


What are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine?

the deep cervical artery, highest (superior) intercostal artery, posterior intercostal artery, and subcostal artery


What are the segmental arteries of the fifth lumbar vertebra?

The liliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery and median sacral artery


What is the name of the largest medullary feeder artery?

the artery of Adamkiewicz or the arteria radicalis magna anterior


What are the characteristics of the artery of Adamkiewicz?

it is a left side, anterior medullary feeder artery, located in the T9/T10 intervertebral foramen, and the primary vascular supply to the lumbar enlargement


What will the intervertebral veins drain into?

the external vertebral venous plexus or Batson's plexus


What is a unique histological feature of the veins of the vertebral column?

they lack valves


What is the relationship between aging and cervical spine nerve root characteristics?

the length of the nerve root increases as it descends from its apparent origin on the spinal cord, but the cross-sectional area of the nerve root decreases


What are the specific attachment sites for a cervical spinal nerve?

the sulcus for the ventral primary ramus on the costotransverse bar & the vertebral artery


What forms the lumbosacral tunnel?

the lumbosacral ligament, transverse process of L5, and sacral ala


What condition is the result of encroachment on the L5 spinal nerve?

The far out syndrome


What are some examples of destructive lesions of the vertebral body?

Tuberculosis, hemangiomas, osteoporosis


What may reduce the impact of intervertebral disc loss of integrity on the intervertebral foramen int he cervical and thoracic spine?

The joint of Luschka in the cervicals, the costocentral joint in the thoracics


What are examples of acquired alterations of the spinal curves identified in class?

obesity, pregnancy, and the use of backpacks


Identify the common ligaments of the vertebral column?

The 9 common ligaments are the anterior longitudinal ligament, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum, capsular ligament, interspinous ligament, ligamentum nuchae, supraspinous ligament, and intertransverse ligament


What is the reason that nine common ligaments are identified but only eight will be attached at any specific vertebral couple?

The ligamentum nuchae and supraspinous ligaments attach to the spinous tubercles, but only one of these will be identified at a single vertebral couple


Which common ligament/s will attach to the lamina?

The ligamentum flavum


Which type of collagen is dominant in the nucleus pulposus?

collagen type II


What is the organizational pattern for glycosaminoglycans in the lumbar annulus fibrosus?

they typically have a binding site for for hyaluronic acid and are thus aggregated


Which type of collagen is dominant in the annulus fibrosus?

collagen type I


What is the organization of collagen fibers between lamellae?

Collagen fibers will be angled in the opposite direction such that a spiral- counterspiral organization is observed


What is the relationship between size of the intervertebral disc and receptor endings?

the larger the disc, the greater the variety of receptor endings


What innervates the outer lamellae of the annulus fibrosus at the lateral part of the intervertebral disc?

Fibers from the ventral primary ramus, fibers from the white ramus communicans, fibers from the paradiscal ramus communicans, fibers from the gray ramus communicans


What is the earliest indicator of the position of the adult intervertebral disc?

The intrasclerotomal fissure or fissure of von Ebner


What was ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament in the lumbar region identified as?

Forestier's Disease


Where is ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament most commonly identified?

the cervical spine with an 80% incidence


What is the gender, age, and ethnic bias associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament?

it is greater in males over 50 and has a higher incidence in the Japanese


In which region of the spine will the ligamentum flavum be paired?

the lumbar spine


What is the name given to the ligamentum flavum based on appearance and histology?

it is a yellow elastic ligament


What regions of the vertebral column demonstrate the greatest laxity of capsular ligaments?

the cervical and lumbar regions


If the zygapophyseal capsular ligament is not significantly involved in restricting motion what is it function?

it is probably involved in proprioceptive feedback to the muscles stabilizing the vertebral couple during movement


What is the status of the human interspinous ligament compared with other common ligaments?

they are poorly developed as ligaments although collagen fibers are present


what is the name given to the superficial layer of the ligamenttum nuchae?

the funicular layer or part


What is the name given to the deep layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

the lamellar layer or part


what are the attchment sites for the superficial layer of the ligamentum nuchae?

the external occipital protuberance, external occipital crest, and spinous tubercle of C7


What is the termination level inferiorly for the supraspinous ligament accoding to current literature?

Primarily at L4 (73%); between L4 and L5 (5%)


What forms the ventral slip of the intertrasverse ligament in the lumbar spine?

A membranous partition from the vertebral body covers the intervertebral foramen and extends back to the transverse process to form a ventral slip. It is penetrated by the contents of the intervertebral foramen


What is the ADI?

the atlanto-dental interspace, a radiographic distance between the surfaces of the anterior bursa of the median atlanto-axial joint


What is the ADI of children?

about 4.5 mm


What is the ADI of adults?

a range of 2-3 mm or about 2.5 mm


What are the attachment sites for the accessory ligament of the lateral atlanto-axial joint?

the base of the odontoid process and vertebral body of axis to the tubercle for the transverse atlantal ligament of atlas


What are the degrees of one side axial rotation facilitated at the atlanto-axial joint?

about 40 degrees one side axial rotation


the occiput-C1-C2 joint complex accounts for what percent of all cervical axial rotation?



What is the embryonic derivative of the apical ligament of the dens ot the apicodental ligament?

the notochord


What are the attchment sites for the anterior atlanto-dental ligament?

the alar ligament and ipsilateral lateral mass of C1


What are the attachment sites for the superficial layer of the membrana tectoria?

the posterior part of the inferior epiphyseal rim and vertebral body of C2 to the capsular ligament of the atlanto-occipital joint and cranial dura of the posterior cranial fossa


What are the attachment sites for the deep layer of the membrana tectoria?

the posterior part of the inferior epiphyseal rim and vertebral body of C2 to the periosteum behind the cruciate ligament attachment site on the anterior rim of the foramen magnum