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Flashcards in Spinal 2 Wk 4 Deck (30):

How can synovial fluid be a dialysate?

It results from the movement of part of the blood through the vascular wall to form interstitial fluid and the subsequent movement of the interstitial fluid through the synovial laminal intima into the joint cavity, thus it is a dialysate.


What are the classifications of diarthroses based of the number of articulating surfaces?

Simple, compound, and complex synovial joints.


What is a complex diarthrosis?

The articulating surfaces are separated by an articular disc or meniscus.


What are examples of diarthrosis sellar joints?

Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, talocrural joint of the ankle, and the calcaneocuboid joint of the foot.


What are the regions of the internal carotid artery?

Cervical, petrous, cavernous and cerebral.


What branch of the cavernous division of the internal carotid artery was stressed in the text?

The opthalmic artery.


What are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine?

The vertebral artery, ascending cervical artery and deep cervical artery.


What are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine?

The deep cervical artery, highest (superior) intercostal artery, posterior intercostal artery and subcostal artery.


What are the segmental arteries of the lumbar spine?

The lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery and median (middle) sacral artery.


What vessels form the retromandibular vein?

Superficial temporal and internal maxillary vein.


What characteristics of lymph capillaries were stressed in the text?

They begin as blind-ended sacs, have greater luminal diameter than blood capillaries, are more variable in luminal diameter than blood capillaries are more layered in plexus arrangements than blood capillaries.


What are the names of the ducts of the lymphatic system?

Right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct.


What parts of the body will the right lymphatic duct drain?

The right side of the head, neck, and thoracic parietal wall, as well as the right upper extremity, right lung and convex (diaphragmatic) surface of the liver.


What is the location and structural origin for the thoracic duct?

L2 from the cisterna chyli.


What are examples of aggregate lymph nodules?

The tonsils and Peyer's patches of the small intestine.


What is the function of lymph nodules?

Perpetuation of the lymphocyte cell line and to aid in the immune response


What is the function of lymph nodes?

They primarily filter lymph but also are involved in lymphocytopoiesis and they do participate in the immune response.


At which vertebral couple will the cervical curve again increase intervertebral disc height?



What is the joint classification for the anterior lip-anterior groove articulation?

Amphiarthrosis syndesmosis


What is the name given to the uncinate process-lateral groove articulation?

Joint of Luschka or uncovertebral joint.


What muscle attaches to the typical cervical vertebral body?

The longus colli muscle.


What is the orientation and angulation of the pedicle of a typical cervical?

Posterolateral, 45 degrees.


The greatest frequency of osteophytes associated with the vertebral body occurs at which typical vertebral couple?



List, in order, the osseous parts of the typical cervical vertebra transverse processes beginning at the vertebral body.

Costal element, anterior tubercle, costotransverse bar, posterior tubercle, true transverse process.


What muscles will attach to the anterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

Anterior scalene, longus capitis, longus colli, anterior intertransverse muscles


What muscles may attach to the posterior tubercle of a typical cervical vertebra?

Splenius cervicis, iliocostalis cervicis, longissimus cervicis, levator scapula, middle scaline, posterior scaline, rotators and posterior intertransverse muscles.


What muscles will attache to the costotransverse bar?

Middle scalene and posterior intertransverse muscles.


What is the orientation and angulation of a typical cervical transverse process?

60 degrees anterolaterally (from midsagittal plane), 15 degrees inferiorly (from the horizontal plane).


What will occupy the typical cervical vertebra transverse foramen?

The vertebral artery, vertebral venous plexus and postganglionic sympathetic motor verve fibers.


What muscles will attach to typical cervical articular processes?

The longissimus capitis, longissimus cervicis, semispinalis, capitis, semispinalis cervicis, mutifidis and rotators.