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Flashcards in Spinal Ex 3 Wk 2 Deck (40):
1

What are the possible locations of pseudounipolar neurons?

any sensory ganglion other than those of the eighth cranial nerve

2

Where is the primary sensory neuron of a typical sensory pathway located?

in a sensory ganglion

3

What is the morphology of most motor or efferent neurons associated with the peripheral nerve system?

multipolar

4

What are the three classifications of sensory receptor endings?

functional specificity, distribution-function, and structure or morphology

5

What do blood chemoreceptors monitor?

hypoxia (decreased oxygen levels), hypercapnia (increased carbon dioxide levels) and elevated hydrogen ions (blood pH)

6

What do blood baroreceptors monitor?

They monitor blood pressure by evaluating stretch or tension along the length of the receptor ending

7

What are the types and examples of exteroceptors?

A) general or cutaneous sense organs such as free nerve endings, encapsulated endings and epidermal endings
B) Special sense receptors for olfaction, vision, hearing, and taste

8

What are the examples of proprioceptors?

Golgi tendon organs, neuromuscular spindles, Pacinian corpuscles, inner ear receptors for equilibrium and specialized receptors in joints

9

Where will the interoceptors be located?

in viscera, glands, and blood vessels

10

Which type of encapsulated nerve ending is sensitive to vibration?

Lamellated corpuscles or Pacinian corpuscles

11

Contrast the sensory ganglion with the motor ganglion.

Sensory ganglion contain primary sensory neuron cell bodies and lack synapses; motor ganglia contain secondary motor neuron cell bodies and always demonstrate synapses.

12

What are the parts of a primary sensory neuron?

Sensory receptor ending, peripheral sensory process, perikaryon, central sensory process, synaptic ending.

13

Muscles derived from somites are innervated by which cranial nerves?

Cranial nerve III (oculomotor nerve)
cranial nerve IV (trochlear nerve)
cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve)
cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve)

14

Muscles derived from the briachial or pharyngeal arches are innervated by which cranial nerves?

Cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve)
cranial nerve VII (facial nerve)
cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve)
cranial nerve X (vagus nerve)
cranial nerve XI (spinal accessory nerve)

15

What peripheral nerves contain visceral efferent pathways at their origin?

Cranial nerves III (oculomotor)
cranial nerve VII (facial nerve)
cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve)
cranial nerve X (vagus nerve)
spinal nerves T1-T12, L1, L2 and S2-S4

16

What are the ultimate target cells of the visceral efferent pathways?

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, glandular tissue, and some unique specialized cell types.

17

What is the basic way of describing the motor pathways to visceral muscle based on the number of neurons associated with the pathway?

two motor neuron pathways

18

What is the location for the secondary sympathetic efferent neuron cell body?

a prevertebral ganglion or paravertebral ganglion

19

what is the comparative length of the axons associated with the sympathetic efferent pathway?

preganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers are relatively short; postganglionic sympathetic efferent fibers are relatively long

20

What is the name given to and neuroactive substance associated with postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers?

Cholinergic fibers, acetylcholine

21

What is the name given to the location of a cranial nerve as it exits the central nervous system?

Apparent origin

22

What types of efferent neurons form nuclei of origin in the brain?

somatic neurons, branchial neurons, and primary parasympathetic neurons

23

Will sympathetic efferent neurons be located in the brain?

No

24

What are the four classifications of afferent neurons?

somatic afferent, visceral afferent, special visceral afferent, and special sensory

25

What do somatic afferents monitor?

pain, temperature, light touch, and proprioception

26

What do visceral afferents monitor?

baroreception, chemoreception, sensation from viscera

27

What do special visceral afferents monitor?

olfaction and taste

28

What is unusual about the receptor ending of the primary olfactory neuron?

it is an olfactory knob covered with olfactory cilia

29

What forms the true olfactory nerve?

Fila olfactoria

30

What is the location for synapes between primary and secondary afferent neurons of the first cranial nerve?

Olfactory glomerulus

31

What is the name of the traditional secondary afferent neuron of the first cranial nerve?

mitral cell

32

What is the function of the Rod cell?

provide vision in dim light

33

What is the function of the cone cell?

provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision

34

What forms the optic nerve?

axons of ganglion cells

35

What occurs at the optic chiasma?

part of the optic nerve decussates

36

Axons carried in the second cranial nerve will synapes in what specific location?

Lateral geniculate nucleus

37

What is/are the target organ(s) for the somatic efferent fibers carried in the third cranial nerve?

medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, and inferior oblique extrinsic muscles of the eyeball and the levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the eyelid

38

Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the third cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?

accessory oculomotor nucleus of Edinger/Westphal

39

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve are carried in which nerve?

short ciliary nerve

40

Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve synapes in what targets?

Sphincter pupillae & ciliaris intrinsic eye muscles