study guide 21, 22, 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in study guide 21, 22, 23 Deck (45):
1

1. Which of the following describes portions of the image that appears brighter than normal?

Hyperechoic (page 356)

2

2. What about images that are not as bright or are less bright then normal

hypoechoic (JL 356)

3

3. Structure without echoes how do you describe that

anechoic (JL 356)

4

4. A tissue or structure that has a similar echo characteristics with or without

homogeneous (JL 356)

5

5. Tissue displaying variety of different echo characteristics

heterogeneous (JL 356)

6

Reverberation, comet tail, shadow, Edge shadow,
Enhancement, Focal enhancement, Mirror image, Speed error, Lobes, Side lobes and grating lobes Refraction, slice thickness, Lateral resolution, axial resolution Multipath, curved and oblique reflectors, temporal resolution artifact, spatial resolution artifact, range ambiguity artifact, Noise
(plz change if not correct)

6. Artifacts are on an error on an image which one isn’t an error

7

7. Equipment malfunction or design physics of ultrasound of error, what is this?

Causes of artifacts

8

8. Multiple equally spaced parallel lines?

Reverberation (page 357)

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9. Which artifact is unrelated to the dimensions of an ultrasound pulse

Refraction artifact (page 376 question 10)

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10. Which artifact produces an image with an incorrect number of pulses side by side

Side lobe, grating lobe, refraction (page 375 in the box)

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11. Artifacts result of the replaced, all okay expect one?

I had:
artifacts result in the placement of too many echoes on the image except (MW)

Shadowing

12

12. Which of the following does not result from multiple reflections

Enhancement (page 378 question 14)

13

13. Two distinct reflectors are observed on an image but actually arise from a single anatomical deep image and are correct?

A mirror image (page 378 question 13)

14

14. Two reflections from side by side which one is real and what is the normal cause for this artifact

Grating lobe artifact (page 378 question 12)

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15. Which artifact create one reflection on an image from two closely spaced reflectors

axial resolution (JL 370)

16

16. When the beam dimension is greater than the reflector size what artifact may

Slice Thickness (AKA section thickness artifact or partial volume artifact), and axial resolution

17

17. Lobes created by array transducer is called what?

grating lobes

18

18. What methods can be used to eliminate lobe artifacts?

* Subdicing
* Apodization

19

19. Single solid hyperechoic line parallel to the sound beam and no spaces with in the line is what artifact

Comet tail ( JL 358)

20

20. What artifact occurs when the beam is unable to pass through a structure because of the high attenuation

shadow ( JL 359)

21

21. Refractions at an end of circular structure can cause what artifact

Edge shadowing (JL 360) (shadowing by refraction)

22

22. What artifact and there is too much gain in the focal zone

focal enhancement ( JL 362)

23

23. What artifact when the medium the sound travels has a lower attenuation rate then soft tissue

speed error (JL 364) (vertical misregirstration)
AKA range error artifact

24

24. Which artifact occurs when you see reflectors at incorrect depths

Side lobe artifact (page 377 question 8)
at incorrect depths: Speed error, range ambiguity

25

25. When propagation speed is greater than 1540 m/s reflector is placed what on the display?

too shallow?? (JL 364)

26

26. Grating lobes are caused by what type of transducer?

array transducer

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27. What artifacts can be solved by lowering PRF

Range ambiguity

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28. Which of the following artifacts are only found with Doppler

Crosstalk/ Mirror image/ clutter (page 363)

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29. A grainy appearance of tissue created by interference

Speckle? (Page 374) Acoustic speckle

30

30. Media through which ultrasound travels doesn't propagate at 1540 m/s, assumed relationship between time and distance is invalid?

Speed error

31

31. Propagation speed errors appear is a what?

Step-off as if the structures are "split" or "cut" (page 364)

32

artifacts ( JL 355)

32. What are errors in imaging? One doesn’t belong

33

• Violation of assumptions
• Equipment malfunction or poor design
• The physics of ultrasound
• Operator error

33. Causes of artifacts? one that doesn’t belong

34

* Doppler gain set to high
* Incident of angle is near 90% between the sound beam and the flow direction, when flow is at the beam's focus

34. Two causes for crosstalk know them!

35

35. Color flash is also referred to as what?

??

36

36. Wall filters are used to reject what?

Rejects the low level frequency shifts

37

37. If the path to reflector is a different length then the returning path what artifact

Multipath (page 371)

38

38. What produces shadowing

high attenuation (JL 359)

39

39. Enhancement where does it appear on the image

beneath tissue with abnormally low attenuation (JL 361)

40

40. Which transducer may have poor elevational resolution

thick transducers (JL 369) created by 1 1/2 dimensional transducer

41

41. Avoidance of needless harm, or injury?

nonmaleficence (JL 397)

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42. What provides a basis for informed consent

Autonomy (JL 397)

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43. When can a patient revoke consent

At anytime even during a procedure or exam

44

44. What is the first action when the sonographer enters the room

Introduces them selves

45

45. What is the study between a worker and their environment called

Ergonomics (JL 399)