FInal part II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FInal part II Deck (85)
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1

Based on the acquisition and review of information from patients or animals exposed to ultrasound
exposure and response
no need to understand mechanism (+ and -)
biological significance is obvious (+)
species differences may alter results (-)
Strongest conclusion are made when the mechanistic and empirical conclusion are in agreement


1. Empirical approach

2

2. Contrast, shrinking and swelling

Resonance, nonlinear behavior

3

3. Primary investigative technique of epidemiology

Reviewing data from patients

4

4. Intensity most related to tissue heating

SPTA

5

5. Bioeffect studies on non-living things

Mechanistic Approach

6

What type of trans causes less amount of temperature increase

Grey scale image Q.# 13, pg 421

7

7. Possibility of patient technologist shock

Mechanical Transducer

8

8. When is it safe to perform in Ultrasound

When the benefits outweight the risk

9

9. Electronic component used for gray scale imaging

Scan converter pg.241

10

Preprocessing: TGC, log compression, write magnification, persistence spatial compounding, edge enhancement, and fill-in enhancement

10. Know all of the preprocessing and post processing functions

11

11. What function steers the scan lines in different directions

Spatial compounding pg.254

12

Virtually instant
no degradation of data, and the ability to electronically transmit images
report to remote sites (“store and forward”)

12. Advantages of PACs systems

13

12. Advantages of PACs systems

Virtually instant
no degradation of data, and the ability to electronically transmit images
report to remote sites (“store and forward”)

14

Safe
metaboliccaly inert
long lasting
strong reflector of ultrasound
small enough to pass through capillaries

14. Know the requirements for contrast agents

15

13. Signal from the transducer to the receiver

.?

16

14. Know the requirements for contrast agents

Safe
metaboliccaly inert
long lasting
strong reflector of ultrasound
small enough to pass through capillaries

17

harmonics vs fundamental frequencies

Harmonics is double the fundamental frequency
Harmonics has nonlinear behavior

18

16. Accelerations and deceleration of velocities from cardiac contraction

Pulsitile Flow

19

Acceleration and deceleration of velocities from respiration

Phasic Flow

20

change in flow direction
increased velocity as vessels narrows
turbulence downstream from the stenosis
pressure gradient across the stenosis
loss of pulsitility

20. Know the effects of a stenosis

21

Supine:
Hydrostatic- 0 mmHg
Blood pressure is same (140 mmHg)

Standing:
Hydrostatic
-ankle - 100 mmHg
- knee - 75 mmHg
-waist - 50 mmHg
-heart/arm - 0 mmHg
- Forehead - -30 mmHg
- Tip of finger - -130 mmHg
Blood pressure is arterial of heart + hydrostatic

21. Know hydrostatic pressure at all locations

22

18. Flow pattern with normal physiological states

Laminar Flow

23

19. Reynolds number for turbulent flow?

Greater than 2,000

24

20. Know the effects of a stenosis

change in flow direction
increased velocity as vessels narrows
turbulence downstream from the stenosis
pressure gradient across the stenosis
loss of pulsitility

25

21. Know hydrostatic pressure at all locations

Supine:
Hydrostatic- 0 mmHg
Blood pressure is same (140 mmHg)

Standing:
Hydrostatic
-ankle - 100 mmHg
- knee - 75 mmHg
-waist - 50 mmHg
-heart/arm - 0 mmHg
- Forehead - -30 mmHg
- Tip of finger - -130 mmHg
Blood pressure is arterial of heart + hydrostatic

26

22. What is it referred to when the vessel collapses venous

coaptation

27

Baseline
lower frequency
Shallower volume depth
Adjust scale
CW

27. Five ways to eliminate aliasing

28

23. Venous flow in the leg decreases what is the patient doing?

Inspiration

29

24. Doppler shift when source and receiver are moving apart?

Negative

30

25. What is the typical range of Doppler shift

20 Hz- 20KHz
Audible