Flashcards in Subjunctive Noun Clauses (also ch.4 in general) Deck (108)
Conditional perfect: Juan se habría alegrado de: Juan would have been happy
Pluperfect subjunctive: que hubieran (hubiesen) venido. (that) they had come.
Expressions of Uncertainty: The subjunctive is used in Spanish when the verb in the main clause expresses doubt, disbelief, uncertainty, or denial about the reality of the dependent clause.
Dudábamos que la policía pudiera llegar a tiempo. We doubted that the police could arrive on time.
No cree que su enfermedad tenga cura.
He doesn't believe that his illness has a cure.
No estoy segura de que Raquel haya cerrado la puerta.
I am not sure that Raquel has closed the door.
La madre negaba que su hijo hubiera roto la ventana.
The mother denied that her son had broken the window.
When there is no change of subject, the infinitive is generally used.
Dudábamos poder llegar a tiempo. We doubted we could arrive on time. No cree poder acompañarme al centro. He doesn't believe he can accompany me downtown. No estoy segura de haver cerrado la puerta. I am not sure I closed the door. La madre negaba haber roto la ventana. The mother denied she broke (having broken) the window.
The most common verbs of uncertainty are:
no creer, dudar, no estar suguro de, negar, and resistirse a creer
No creer takes the indicative when the speaker is certain about the reality of the dependent verb regardless of someone else's doubt.
Ella no cree que yo me saqué la lotería. She doesn't believe that I won a prize in the lottery. (But I, the speaker, know that I did.)
When verbs of uncertainty are used in a question, the doubt or assurance on the part of the person who asks the question determines the use of the subjunctive or the indicative:
Creen Uds. que ella pueda hacer ese trabajo?
Do you think that she can do that work?
No cree Ud.... does not imply doubt on the part of the speaker and thus the indicative is used.
No crees que él es muy inteligente? Don't you think that he is very intelligent?
El hecho (de) que and its elliptic forms "el que"and "que"normally require the subjunctive in the clause they introduce when the fact presented is viewed by the speaker with doubt, reservation, or some kind of emotion.
El hecho de que (El que, Que) gasten tanto, me hace sorspechar. The fact that they spend so much makes me suspicious.
El hicho de que (El que, Que) el chico pudiera haber caído en el pozo, preocupaba a quienes lo buscaban.
The fact that the child might have fallen into the well worried those looking for him.
Me ha molestado el hecho de que (el que, que) no me hayas llamado antes.
The fact that you didn't call me earlier has bothered me.
Commands, Wishes expressed elliptically, expressious of wish or regret preceded by Ojala (que) or Quién, and doubts implied by verbs preceded by quizá(s) and tal vez may occur in independent clauses and require the subjunctive in Spanish.
Wishes expressed elliptically
Que le(s) aproveche! Von appetit! (Enjoy your dinner.)
Que se diviertan. Have a good time!
Muera el terrorisimo! Down with terrorism!
Que en paz descanse (Q.E.P.D.) May he/she rest in peace.
Que lo haga otro. Have someone else do it!
Expressions of wish or regret preceded by Ojalá (que) or Quién!: Ojala que + present subj. is used to express a hope or wish that something occurs in the future. Ojalá (que) + imperfect subjunctive is used to express a wish that is impossible or unlikely to occur in the future. Ojalá (que) + present perfect subj. expresses a wish about something in the immediate past. Ojalá (que) + pluperfect subj. refers to a wish that was not fulfilled in the past and denotes regret.
Ojalá que Ignacio llame hoy. I hope Ignacio calls today. (a wish that may be fulfilled.)
Ojalá que Ignacio llamara hoy. I wish Ignacio would call today. (A wish of difficult realization)
Ojalá que Ignacio haya llamado. (I hope Ignacio has called.) The speaker is out, forgot his or her cell phone at home and doesn't know whether Pepe has called or not.
Ojalá que Ignacio hubiera llamado ayer. I wish (If only) Ignacio had called yesterday. (The action didn't take place and the speaker regrets it)
Quien + third person singular imperfect subj. or third-person singular pluperfect subjunctive also refers to a wish of the speaker. It is never used with the present subj.
Quién pudiera vivir cien años. I wish I could live for one hundred years!
Quién hubiera estado allí en ese momento! I wish I had been there at that moment!