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Flashcards in T1 Blueprint - HF (Josh) Deck (32):
1

Which side heart failures is a.k.a CHF?

Left Side

2

What is the most common type of Left Side Heart Failure?

Systolic

- enlarged ventricles fill with blood and pump out less than 40-50% of the blood

3

Which type of Left Side HF is less common and associated with a filling problem?

Diastolic

***Stiff ventricle will fill with less blood than normal

4

Why would HF lead to Oliguria?

failure to perfuse the kidneys

5

Which heart sound is associated with Left Side HF?

S3

6

What drugs can be given to reduce AFTERLOAD?

ACE Inhibitors (-pril)

ARB (-sartan)

Human B-type Natriuretic Peptides (nesiritide)

7

What drugs can be given to reduce PRELOAD?

Morphine Sulphate

Diuretics (most common)

Venous dilators
- Nitrates
- Isosorbide

8

What drugs can be given to increase CONTRACTILITY?

Digoxin

Inotropics
- Dobutamine
- Milirinone (acute)

Beta Blockers (-lol)

9

Nursing action for PE

High Fowler's

O2

Nitroglycerin

Rapid-acting diuretics

IV Morphine Sulfate

10

What medication can be given to deal with acute rejection of heart transplant?

Methylprednisolone IV

11

Long-term complications from Heart Transplant?

Denervated heart

Chronic Immunosuppression
- osteoporosis
- fragile skin
- obesity
- HTN
- Liver disease
- Kidney disease

12

What are the hemodynamic effects of Mitral Stenosis?

decrease forward flow and incomplete atrial empthying

13

What are the consequences of Mitral Stenosis?

Right ventricular hypertrophy and failure

Pulmonary congestion

Low CO

14

Clinical manifestations of Mitral Stenosis

DOE, Fatigue, Palpitations

Hemoptysis

Hoarseness

Dysphagia

JVD

Orthopnea

PND, Cough

Afib

S1

Opening Snap

15

What would you hear upon auscultation of Mitral Stenosis?

Diastolic Murmur

16

What are the hemodynamic effects of Mitral Regurge?

valve failing to close causes increased volume load on left Atrium and Ventricle

17

What are the Clinical Manifestations of Mitral Regurge?

DOE, Fatigue, Palpitations

Crackles

PND

Afib

S3 and/or S4

18

Which type of murmur would be heard with Mitral Regurge?

Systolic Murmur

19

Which Valve disorder has a mid-systolic click?

MVP

***usually asymptomatic

20

Which valve disorder?

Decreased forward flow and incomplete left ventricular emptying

Pulmonary Congestion

Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

Aortic Stenosis

***very serious

21

Clinical manifestations of Aortic Stenosis

DOE, Fatigue, Palpitations

LV HF

Syncope

Narrow Pulse Pressure

Angina

S3 and/or S4

22

Which heart murmur with Aortic Stenosis?

Systolic Murmur

23

Which valve problem?

Failure to close leads to increased vol load on left heart and causes Left Ventricular Dilation and Hypertrophy.

Aortic Regurge

24

Clinical Manifestations of Aortic Regurge

DOE, Fatigue, Palpitations

Widened Pulse Pressure

Angina

S3

25

Which murmur with Aortic Regurge?

Diastolic Murmur

26

Which valve replacement is lifelong and requires anticoagulants?

Mechanical Valve Replacement

***very durable

27

Which valve replacement is less durable but doesn't need anticoagulants?

Tissue Valve Replacement

***older clients who could fall and you don't want them on anticoagulants

28

What is the most common form of Cardiomyopathy?

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

- ventricles are enlarged and can't push out enough

***SV decrease

29

What is the least common form of Cardiomyopathy?

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

- ventricles are stiff and rigid

***filling of ventricles isn't sufficient

30

What are the mechanical consequences of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

Aortic Valve outflow is obstructed

31

Which form of cardiomyopathy is a problem with diastolic function?

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

***ventricles too stiff to fill properly during diastole

32

ETOH abuse is a risk factor for which type of HF?

Cardiomyopathy