T2 - Asthma, Sarcoidosis, Lung Cancer (Josh) Flashcards Preview

Adult Health 1 - (Josh) > T2 - Asthma, Sarcoidosis, Lung Cancer (Josh) > Flashcards

Flashcards in T2 - Asthma, Sarcoidosis, Lung Cancer (Josh) Deck (68)
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1

What happens to bronchioles during asthma?

obstructed on expiration due to muscle spasm, edema of mucosa, and thick secretions

2

Statistics of Asthma:

What is the impact of Asthma on healthcare?

5000 ED visits daily ; 217,000 ED visits annually

1000 hospital admissions daily ; 500,000 annually

10.5 million PCP visits each year

***Increases odds of needing medical treatment by 33% for obese clients

3

Statistics of Asthma:

What is the prevalence of Asthma in U.S.?

20 million americans

300 million worldwide

more common in adult women than men

more common in AA than Whites

***Number continues to increase

4

Statistics of Asthma:

What is the cost of Asthma in U.S.?

$ 19.7 billion annually

$3,300 per person annually

5

Asthma:

What are the two steps of Asthma?

Inflammation

Airway hyperresponsiveness leading to bronchoconstriction

6

Asthma:

Pathophysiology

Intermittent and resversible airflow obstruction affecting airways only, not alveoli

***AIRWAYS ONLY, NOT ALVEOLI

7

Asthma:

How could ASA and other NSAIDS trigger asthma?

increased production of leukotriene while suppressing other inflammatory pathways

8

Asthma:

What are some triggers of the Inflammation process?

Cold air

Dry air

Specific Allergens

General Irritants

Microorganisms

ASA

9

Asthma:

What are some triggers of the Hyper-Responsiveness process?

Exercise

URI

GERD

unknown reasons

10

Asthma:

What are some clinical manifestations?

Audible wheeze

Increased RR and cough

Use of accessory muscles

Barrel chest

Long breathing cycle

Cyanosis

Hypoxemia

11

Asthma:

What may happen to CO2 during asthma attack?

arterial CO2 may decrease (alkalosis) early in attack and increase (acidosis) later

***indicating poor gas exchange

12

Asthma:

What would serum eosinophil levels and Immunoglobulin E levels look like?

elevated

13

Asthma:

What is most accurate way to assess Pulmonary Function?

Spirometry

14

What is Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)?

volume of exhaled air from full inhalation to full exhalation

15

What is Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1)?

volume of air blown out as hard and fast as possible during the first second after a full inhalation

***decreases by 15-20% of expected value is common in asthma

16

What is Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR)?

fastest airflow rate reached during exhalation

17

Asthma Severity:

What is Mild Intermittent?

symptoms less than twice a week

18

Asthma Severity:

What is Mild Persistent?

symptoms more than twice a week, but not daily

19

Asthma Severity:

What is Moderate Persistent?

daily symptoms, with exacerbations twice a week

20

Asthma Severity:

What is Severe Persistent?

symptoms occur continually with frequent exacerbations

21

Asthma Meds:

Which bronchodilator would not be first choice due to narrow therapeutic range?

Theophyline

22

Asthma Meds:

What anti-cholinergic is often used as a bronchodilator?

ipratroprium

23

Asthma Meds:

What are the anti-inflammatory agents?

Corticosteroids

Cromones (cromolyn)

Leukotrien Modifiers (reduce inflammation)

24

Status Asthmaticus:

What is it?

severe, life-threatenine, acute episode of airway obstruction

25

Status Asthmaticus:

Does patient respond to normal asthma meds?

no

26

Status Asthmaticus:

What are some complications?

Pneumothorax

Cardiac / Respiratory arrest

27

Status Asthmaticus:

What is treatment regimen?

IV fluids

Potent Systemic bronchodilator

Steroids

Epi

O2

28

Emphysema and Chronic Bronchitis are examples of ---

COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

29

COPD:

What is it characterized by?

bronchospasm and dyspnea

***tissue damage is NOT reversible

***only can treat the symptoms

30

COPD:

Chronic Bronchitis is an --- problem

Pulmonary Emphysema is an --- problem

Airway

Alveolar

*** both are examples of COPD