Flashcards in T3 - Probs of CNS (Brain) (Josh) Deck (64)
Risk factors for Headaches
Intense odors / bright lights
Fatigue / Sleep Depr.
Emotional/Physical Stress; Anxiety
Menstrual Cycle; Oral Contraceptive use
Which foods increase risk for headaches?
- aged cheese, meats, etc
Describe the characteristics of a Migraine Headache.
Intense, UNILATERAL pain
Worsens w/ mvmt
Photophobia or Phonophobia
What are the categories of a Migraine?
Aura (classic migraine)
No Aura (most common)
What are the Phases of an Aura Migraine?
How long does a No Aura Migraine last?
How long does an Atypical Migraine last?
longer than 72 hrs
What are characteristics of a Cluster Headache?
Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia
Brief, Intense, UNILATERAL pain
Non-throbbing or BORING pain
30 mins to 2 hrs in length
Occurs daily for 4-12 wks
What is the patho of a Cluster Headache?
vasoreactivity and neruogenic inflammation
- Tearing of eye w/ nasal congestion
- Facial sweating
Drooping eyelid (ptosis) and eyelid edema
- Facial pallor
- Pacing, walking, and rocking activities
What meds for Abortive treatment for Migraine?
- NSAIDs (ibuprofen; naproxen)
- Migraine specific OTC formulations
Which meds for Preventive treatment for Migraine?
Beta Blockers (propanolol; timolol)
What non-pharmacological treatments for Migraines?
O2 Therapy (100% for short time)
Complimentary and Alternative Therapy (yoga, etc)
Consistent sleep/wake cycle
Review triggers such as bursts of anger or excessive physical activity
Deep brain stimulation or surgery as last resort
Triggers for Migraines.
Tyramine foods (pickles, caffeine, ETOH, aged cheese, artificial sweeteners, NUTS)
Lack of sleep/rest
Triggers for Cluster Headaches.
Anxiety w/ prolonged anticipation
Excessive physical activity; fatigue
Altered sleep-wake cycles
What are the different types of Generalized Seizures?
Characteristics of a Tonic-Clonic Seizure.
Both cerebral hemispheres
Loss of consciousness
Biting of Tongue
Post-ictal period with fatigue, lethargy, and confusion
What is the Tonic stage and what is the Clonic stage?
Tonic = abrupt increase in muscle tone with loss of consciousness
Clonic = muscle contraction and relaxation
Which seizure involves staring off in space (looks like day-dreaming) and happens in kids?
Which seizure involves brief jerking or stiffening of extremities?
Which seizure involves a sudden loss of muscle tone?
What are the two classifications of Partial Seizures?
Characteristics of a Complex Partial Seizure?
Loss of consciousness for 1-3 mins
Automatisms can occur
Amnesia post seizure
AKA: Psychomotor or Temporal Lobe Seizures
***more common in older adults
Characteristics of Simple Partial Seizure?
Remains CONSCIOUS throughout
Aura may occur
One sided mvmt in extremities
Unusual sensations (DEJA VU)
Can have autonomic symptoms
Pain or offensive smell
Risk factors for Seizures
Acute ETOH withdrawal
What are some meds we can give for an Acute Seizure?
IV Phenytoin or Fophenytoin
Which med is the DOC for acute Seizure treatment?
***can be given IV
***few s/e than Diazepam
What do we need to remember about Phenytoin?
don't administer w/ Warfarin
What is Status Epilepticus?
prolonged seizure (5-30 mins) or repeated seizures over course of 30 mins
What is emergency treatment for Status Epilepticus?
IV push of lorazepam (or diazepam)
Loading dose of IV Phenytoin