Flashcards in Tech Notes - Chapter 32 Deck (27):
What can inadequate surgical prep lead to?
Inadequate surgical prep can hinder surgical technique, increase risk for infection, and result in prolonged anesthesia.
Why not give AB to all animals undergoing Sx?
ABs should never be given indiscriminately to animals undergoing Sx because this contributes to the development of resistant strains of bacteria (hospital "superbugs") that are difficult to treat.
How often should vital signs be evaluated during Sx?
All indicators (TPR, MMs) should be evaluated SERIALLY to detect a trend in the animal's condition (a single abnormal vital sign does not necessarily identify a significant clinical problem).
It is this trend that will determine the severity of the postoperative problem and will dictate appropriate Tx.
At what intervals should pain meds be administered to a surgical PT?
Pain meds should be administered at dosing intervals appropriate for the medication - not as needed.
The animal should not be allowed to experience pain before medication is given.
When is drainage of a seroma warranted?
If the seroma is very large and/or is causing impairment.
Seromas aren't typically drained because of the increased chance of infection. They usually resolve w/o Tx in a few weeks.
What can happen, if seromas are aspirated repeatedly?
Repeated aspiration of seromas can result in infection and should be avoided.
If an area must be aspirated, it should be aseptically prepared before aspiration.
Suspected abscesses should be aseptically aspirated for cytology and culture, but there is no reason to aspirate a suspected seroma except for the purpose of Tx, which is rare.
How severe is dehiscence of an abdominal wound or thoracic wall?
This can result in life-threatening complications.
Alert the DVM immediately!!!
What can be expected with a drain in place?
Some drainage is expected as long as a drain is in place as a result of tissue irritation by the drain, but it should be minimal.
Why must a vet tech have a working knowledge of common surgical procedures?
To properly prep the animal for Sx, act as an efficient surgical assistant, converse w/owner, and manage immediate and long-term postoperative care.
Why do a lot of hunting dogs have their dewclaws removed?
For practical reasons.
Because rapid movement through dense brush may snag and tear dewclaws away from the foot. Preemptive removal of dewclaws in hunting dogs is thought to spare them this painful possibility.
Where should tissue glue be placed?
The wound should be manually apposed and the glue placed only on the skin edges.
Do not place tissue glue into the open wound formed after a claw is removed.
Placing surgical glue internally can result in chronic lameness and foreign body reaction.
When should bandages from onychectomy be removed?
Bandages from onychectomy should be removed within 24 hours. The cat should remain hospitalized until the bandages have been removed.
What to do with tissues exposed to air during Sx?
Tissues exposed to the air during Sx should be kept moist to help prevent tissue desiccation (=drying out) with subsequent death or irritation.
You may cover exposed viscera with warm, moist laparotomy pads.
What should be done before closing a surgical wound?
A thorough inspection of the abdomen should be made before closure to prevent leaving instruments or sponges in the abdominal cavity.
Pre- and postoperative sponge counts are recommended.
What to remember about GI content (ingesta)!
It is important to remember that GI contents are not sterile. Materials that touch intestinal contents are considered contaminated and are removed from or kept in a separate place on the surgical field.
In a GDV case it is imperative to get fluids going. Where should IVs be placed, front or back?
IV catheters should be placed in the front half of an animal suffering from GDV.
Venous return is compromised from the back half of the dog as a result of compression of the vena cava from the dilated stomach.
What can be expected during the first week after cystotomy?
Mild hematuria with or without blood clots and frequent urination.
However, if this continues or worsens instead of improving, the animal should be reevaluated.
Animals potentially suffering from a diaphragmatic hernia should have what prior to Sx?
They should have oxygen and cage confinement to allow maximal oxygenation, minimal stress, and constant monitoring for respiratory insufficiency before Sx.
How to position an animal with a diaphragmatic hernia?
Place the animal in sternal recumbency with the shoulder higher than the pelvis or gently raising it up from the front end may help reduce abdominal structures back into the abdomen from the thoracic cavity and improve respiration.
How to handle an animal with a chest tube.
Handle the animal carefully to prevent inadvertent introduction of air around the lungs and potential death of the animal.
Make sure the tube is air-tight, that all connections to the environment are closed, and that it is equipped with a protective clamp.
What can be done for animals that are unable to consciously urinate?
It is important to keep the urinary bladder empty by urinary catheterization or manual expression.
This will prevent overdistention with permanent urinary bladder dysfunction, will keep the animal clean, and will help decrease the infection rate.
What's the best thing for pressure/decubital sores?
It is better to prevent pressure sore formation than to have to treat a pressure sore once it occurs.
What's better for an animal with a cervical spine injury, a collar or a harness?
Animals with injuries to the cervical spine should always be placed in a harness rather than in a collar to prevent further cervical damage.
What do all animals with a spinal injury require?
Cage rest (whether or not Sx is done)!
It is important to emphasize to owners that cage rest is important for proper healing, even if the pet is walking and feeling normal.
Most long-bone fractures are not life threatening and do not require emergency Sx.
Things to consider when performing joint Sx
Care should be taken to avoid placing retractors in direct contact with the articular cartilage, and the cartilage should be kept moist to prevent permanent cartilage damage.