TERM 3- MY NOTES FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING CH.22 "Fluids and Electrolytes " Flashcards Preview

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Fluids and Electrolytes

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1

FLUIDS {WATER) _

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2

Water has many functions. It provides an extracellular transportation route to deliver nutrients to the cells and carry waste products from the cells. Once inside the cells, it provides a medium in which chemical reactions, or metabolism, is able to occur.
A)true
B)false

A

3

Water also acts as a lubricant for tissues
A)true
B)false

A

4

Two other important functions of water are to aid in the maintenance of acid-base balance and to assist in heat regulation by evaporation.
A)true
B)false

A

5

Water constitutes the largest percentage of body weight. This percentage depends on several factors and varies with each individual. First, age affects the amount of water in the body.
A)true
B)false

A

6

A newborn's body weight is comprised of 70% to 80% water. That percentage increases in a premature infant to as high as 90%. The infant begins to lose body fluid most rapidly in the first 6 months, and by 12 years the proportion approaches that of an adult.
A)true
B)false

A

7

Another important influence on the amount of water in the body is the amount of fat in the individual. There is a correlation between water content and fat content; fat contains relatively little water.
A)true
B)false

A

8

A woman has proportionately more body fat than a man, which means the woman has less body fluid than the man.
A)true
B)false

A

9

The more obese an individual, the smaller the percenttage of body water.
A)true
B)false

A

10

Both obese and older adults are at risk for complications of illness from dehydration or fluid shifts because they have less fluid reserve in their bodies .
A)true
B)false

A

11

Infants are also at risk for dehydration. More than half of an infant's fluid is extracellular (outside the cells) .
A)true
B)false

A

12

Extracellular fluid is lost from the body more rapidly than intracellular (inside the cells) fluid
A)true
B)false

A

13

Very young, very old, and obese patients are at a higher risk for developing a deficient fluid volume.
A)true
B)false

A

14

A loss of 10% of body fluid is serious in an adult, and a 20% loss is fatal.
A)true
B)false

A

15

In an infant those figures are even more significant. A loss of 5% is serious, 10% is very serious, and 15% is fatal.
A)true
B)false

A

16

Life Span Considerations
Older Adults Dehydration
Older adults are at increased risk of dehydration because of
the following factors:

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• Fat replaces lean muscle as aging progresses, leading to a decrease in total body fluid.

• The aging kidney is less able to concentrate urine, so more fluid is lost.

• Decreases in mobility and diminished sense of thirst often result in decreased fluid intake.

• Incontinent older individuals sometimes restrict fluid intake to reduce the frequency of urination.

• To compensate for changes in taste, older adults often oversalt their food, resulting in electrolyte and fluid imbalances.

• Physiologic changes in the skin and mucous membranes make them less reliable indicators of dehydration.

• Dehydration will sometimes first manifest as mild disorientation.

True

18

• Signs and symptoms of dehydration include thirst, dry mucous membranes, increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, poor skin turgor, and flat neck veins.

• Dehydration increases the risk of orthostatic hypotension.

• Decreased fluid intake increases the likelihood of constipation.

• Because the aging kidney is less efficient at excretion, giving intravenous (IV) infusions or supplements containing sodium or potassium increases the risk of electrolyte imbalance.

• Monitor the complete blood count carefully to detect changes in the hematocrit as it relates to hemoglobin. Decreased plasma volume elevates the hematocrit, whereas the hemoglobin level remains constant.

True

19

FlUID COMPARTMENTS

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The body has two primary fluid compartments: intracellular and extracellular
A)true
B)false

A

21

The fluid compartments are -as follows:
1. Intracellular
2. Extracellular
a. Interstitial
b. Intravascular

True

22

The intracellular fluid compartment is the larger of the two compartments, comprising 66% of the body's fluid. It contains the fluid inside the billions of cells within the body.
A)true
B)false

A

23

The extracellular compartment contains any fluid outside the cells (34%). This compartment is further divided into the interstitial and the intravascular fluid comparhnents.
A)true
B)false

A

24

(Extracelluar compartment) Interstitial fluid is betvveen the cells, or in the tissues. It accounts for approximately 27% of the fluid in the patient's body.
A)true
B)false

S

25

Examples of interstitial fluid include lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, and gastrointestinal (GI) secretions.
A)true
B)false

A

26

(Extracelluar comparment) Intravascular fluid is the plasma within the vessels. The cells of the blood are considered solid particles. After the cells are removed, the liquid that remains is the plasma. It makes up the remaining 7% of fluid volume
A)true
B)false

A

27

The intracellular and extracellular compartments are separated by a semipermeable membrane. This membrane allows for a constant back-and-forth flow as nutrients are taken into the cell and waste products are carried out.
A)true
B)false

A

28

BODY FLUID DISTRIBUTION

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Intracellular means Fluid within cells
A)true
B)false

A