TERM 3- MY NOTES MENTAL HEALTH NURSING CARE CH.6 " STRESS AND COPING" Flashcards Preview

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STRESS AND COPING

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1

Homeostasis

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2

Homeostasis is the state of dynamic balance of the human body's internal environment, which is always adjusting in response to internal and external changes.
A)true
B)false

A

3

A stressor is anything that puts the individual out of homeostasis. The brain has evolved to seek homeostasis, so it initiates the stress response, which is the reaction of the body in an attempt to restore homeostasis
A)true
B)false

A

4

The Stress Response

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Theorist Hans Selye (1976) described stress as the physiological response to changes experienced by a biological organism. He found that the stress response is a general body reaction. Whether a person is being chased by a hungry alligator or has to walk up on a stage to accept an important award, the physiological reaction will be the same. This physiological reaction to a stressor is called the fight or flight response
A)true
B)false

A

6

Epinephrine stimulates the sympathetic nervous system to prepare the body to fight the source of danger or to run away. This stress response is only adaptive when the stressor is a physical threat.
A)true
B)false

A

7

In such an emergency, it would help people survive if they could see better in low light (dilated pupils), could run faster (blood diverted away from GI traer to skeletal muscle), and had more energy to run longer (increased glucose availability)
A)true
B)false

A

8

Chronic exposure to sympathetic nervous system stimulation is not healthy. Although increased blood glucose is great in an emergency, prolonged hyperglycemia causes early fatigue and increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
A)true
B)false

A

9

A chronically elevated blood pressure can increase risks of stroke, heart attack, and kidney disease. Inhibition of the immune system increases the risk of infection in the short term and inhibits tumor immunity in the long term
A)true
B)false

A

10

INDIVIDUAL VARIATION

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It is the person's perception of an event that makes it stressful. One person receiving an immunization who has had several before with no problems may not be concerned about it (and experience no stress response). Another person, whose father died from anaphylactic shock after an immunization, may be terrified (and will experience a severe stress response)
A)true
B)false

A

12

A variety of faccors influence how a person perceives and reacts to a stressor. The predisposing faccors include age, maturity, culture, life experiences, and personality traits.
A)true
B)false

A

13

EFFECT OF CULTURE ON STRESS RESPONSE

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For example, a fracture of a right-handed client's right hand requiring a cast may be especially stressful if the client is from the Middle East where the left hand is considered unclean. This client would not be able to touch people politely, gesture, or even pass food or other items to another person with her left hand, so she would be under more stress and would feel more disabled than a European American client with the same injury who only sees it as an inconvenience to function with her nondominant hand.
A)true
B)false

A

15

CULTURAL PULSE POINTS

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Cultural Effects on Signs and Symptoms of Stress

Western European and North American cultures generally expect that emotional stress will be expressed emotionally and physical stress will be expressed physically. In contrast, the majority of African, Asian, and Central American cultures expect people to express emotional distress in physical terms.

For example, a client from Mexico, Nigeria, or Vietnam may have abdominal pain or a headache when they are worried or under psychological stress. To be culturally sensitive, nurses must recognize that a client's physical discomfort may have emotional causes and must include this possibility in nursing assessments

True

17

Adaptation to Stress

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Adaptation is behavior that maintains the integrity of the individual. It is a healthy response to stress or life events.
A)true
B)false

A

19

Maladaptation is unhealthy behavior that disrupts the integrity of the individual
A)true
B)false

A

20

POSITIVE (ADAPTIVE} STRESS RESPONSES

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• Problem solving. Identify the problem, plan a response, and actively work on it.

• Using social support. Request and accept help from caring others.

• Reframing. Redefine the situation to see positive as well as negative sides and how to use the situation to your advantage.

True

22

NEGATIVE (MALADAPTIVE} STRESS RESPONSES

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• Avoidance. Choosing not to deal with the situation. Negative feelings may become chronic.

• Self-blame. Blaming self takes the focus off working toward resolution of the problem. Feelings are about the self and not the problem.

• Wishful thinking. Thinking that "everything will be fine" to the exclusion of doing anything to make this happen. This is a form of denial.

True

24

Factors Affecting the Ability to Adapt to a Stressor

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Age
The capacity to adapt is decreased in the very young and the old

Genetics
A family history of psychological or physical conditions, intelligence, or physical strength or weakness may affect ability to cope with stressors.

Health status
Severe or chronic illness can decrease a client's reserves of energy and healing capacity when confronted with a new stressor. Good nutrition and adequate sleep can improve the ability to adapt.

Past experiences
The individual's prior experience in a similar situation may help (by learning strategies for success) or hinder (by causing the anticipation of a bad result) the ability to adapt this time.

Resources
The availability of financial, personal (such as maturity), social, and coping skills improve the individual's ability to adapt.

True

26

Levels of Assertiveness

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Passive
The passive person meets the needs of others, without asking for own needs to be met.

Example:
"OK, you can have my ice cream cone.l didn't want it anyway."

True

28

Assertive
The assertive person asks for own needs to be met, with respectful concern for the needs of others

Example:
Sure, I'll drive you to work today. Will you drive me on Tuesday when my sister needs to use my car?"

True

29

Aggressive
The aggressive person demands for own needs to be met, without regard for the needs of others.

Example:
"I want to play now. I don't care if you think it's your turn."

True