Test 1- Part 2: Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1- Part 2: Skeletal System Deck (80):
1

How many bones are there?

206

2

How many bones are part of the axial skeleton?

80

3

How many bones are part of the appendicular skeleton?

126

4

What are the 5 main functions of the skeleton?

1. Protects vital organs
2. Support to maintain posture
3. Movement
4. Mineral storage (calcium & phosphorus)
5. Hemopoiesis (performs blood cell formation in the red bone marrow)

5

What are the 5 types of bones?

Long
Flat
Short
Irregular
Sesamoid

6

These bones are small, cubical shaped, solid. They provide shock absorption

Short bones

7

Give some examples of short bones:

Carpals
Tarsals

8

These bones are long cylindrical shafts with wide protruding ends

Long bones

9

Give some examples of long bones:

Phalanges
Tibia
Fibula
Femur
Humerus

10

Give some examples of irregular bones:

Vertebra
Ischium
Pubis
Maxilla

11

These bones usually have curved surfaces; they provide protection

Flat bones

12

Give some examples of flat bones:

Ilium
Clavicle
Scapula
Ribs
Sternum

13

Small bones that are imbedded w/in the tendon portion of the musculotendinous unit; they reduce pressure and provide a mechanical advantage

Sesamoid Bones

14

Give some examples of sesamoid bones:

Patella
Toe/thumb

15

What is the long cylindirical shaft part of the bone called?

Diaphysis

16

What is the hard, dense compact bone forming walls of diaphysis called?

Cortex (compact)

17

What is the dense, fibrous membrane covering outer surface of diaphysis called?

Periosteum

18

What is between the walls of diaphysis, containing yellow or fatty marrow?

Medullary (marrow) cavity

19

The ends of long bones formed from cancellous (spongy) bone

Epiphysis

20

The cartilage plate that separates diaphysis & epiphyses

Epiphyseal (growth) plate

21

Covers the epiphysis to provide cushioning effect & reduce friction

Articular (hyaline) cartilage

22

Develops from hyaline cartilage; grow rapidly into bone shaped structures, later develop into long bones

Endochondral bones

23

Cells that form new bone

Osteoblasts

24

Cells that resorb old bone

Osteoclasts

25

What are bones composed of?

Calcium caronate, calcium phosphate, collagen & water

26

Bone will adapt to the loads it is placed under

Wolff's law (football player example)

27

Property of bone that is low porosity, stiffer, withstands great stress, and is less strain

Cortical bone

28

Property of bone that is spongy, high porosity (30-90%) and can undergo greater strain before fracturing

Cancellous

29

What are the 3 types of Bone Markings?

1. Processes that form joints
2. Processes that serve as attachment sites for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
3. Cavitites

30

Includes elevations & projections; form joints

Processes
- Condoyle
- Facet
- Head

31

Ridge of bone less prominent than a crest

Line

32

Prominent, narrow, ridge-like projection (iliac of pelvis)

Crest

33

Projection located on or above on or above a condoyle (medial or lateral condoyle of humerous)

Epicondyle

34

Any prominent projection

Process

35

Sharp, slender projection

Spine

36

Line of union between two bones

Suture

37

Very large projection

Trochanter

38

Means "a little swelling"; small rounded projection

Tubercle

39

Means "swelling"; large rounded or roughened projection

Tuberosity

40

Includes opening & grooves

Cavities

41

Connection of bones at a joint usually to allow movement between surfaces of bones

Articulation

42

What are the 3 major classifications according to structure & movement characteristics?

Synarthrodial
Amphiarthrodial
Diathrodial

43

Immovable joints

Synarthrodial

44

Slightly movable joints

Amphiarthrodial

45

Freely movable joints

Diathrodial

46

Ex. of synarthrodial joints:

Skull sutures, teeth in mandible

47

Why are syndesmosis joints only slightly movable?

Bones are united by strong ligaments and allow minimal movement between bones

48

Joint is united by fibrocartilage allowing slight movement between the bones

Symphysis

49

Joint is separated by hyaline cartilage and allow slight movement between bones

Synchrondrosis

50

Name some motions and examples of Arthrodial (gliding) joints:

M: Flexion, extension, rotation, abduction, adduction
E: Intercarpals & intertarslas

51

This diarthrodial joint only allows movement in one plane. Give examples

Ginglymus (hinge) joint
Elbow, knee, ankle

52

What kind of motions does the trochoidal (pivot, screw) joint allow? examples?

Rotation, supination, pronation
Antlatoaxial joint (ulna/radius)

53

Condyloid Joint:

Flexion, extension, abduction & adduction
One bone with an oval concave surface received by another bone with an oval convex surface

54

True ball & socket joints

Enarthrodial (hip & shoulder)

55

Sellar (saddle) joint

only found in thumbs

56

Used to measure amount of movement in a joint or measure a joint angles

Goniometer

57

Area through which a joint may normally be freely and painlessly moved

Range of Motion

58

Lateral movement away from midline of trunk in lateral plane

Abduction

59

Movement medially toward midline of trunk in lateral plane

Adduction

60

Bending movement that results in a decrease of angle in joint by bringing bones together

Flexion

61

Straightening movement that results in an increase of angle in joint by moving bones apart

Extension

62

Circular movement of a limb that delineates an arc or describes a cone

Circumduction

63

Rotary movement around longitudinal axis of a bone away from midline of body

External rotation

64

Rotary movement around longitudinal axis of a bone toward midline of body

Internal rotation

65

Turning sole of foot outward or laterally

Eversion

66

Turning sole of foot inward or medially

Inversion

67

Superior movement of shoulder girdle

Elevation

68

Inferior movement of shoulder girdle

Depression

69

Forward movement of shoulder girdle away from spine

Protraction

70

Backward movement of shoulder girdle toward spine

Retraction

71

Movement of the humerus away from the body in the scapular plane.

Scaption

72

Movement of head and / or trunk laterally away from midline

Lateral flexion

73

Return of spinal column to anatomic position from lateral flexion

Reduction

74

Abduction movement at wrist of thumb side of hand toward forearm

Radial flexion

75

Adduction movement at wrist of little finger side of hand toward forearm

Ulnar flexion

76

Diagonal movement of thumb across palmar surface of hand to make contact with the hand and/or fingers

Oppostion on thumb

77

Diagonal movement of the thumb as it returns to the anatomical position from opposition with the hand and/or fingers

Reposition of thumb

78

A series of points on one articular surface contacts with a series of points on another articular surface

Roll (rock)

79

A specific point on one articulating surface comes in contact with a series of points on another surface

Glide (slide)

80

A single point on one articular surface rotates about a single point on another articular surface

Spin