Flashcards in Test 1- Part 2: Skeletal System Deck (80):
How many bones are there?
How many bones are part of the axial skeleton?
How many bones are part of the appendicular skeleton?
What are the 5 main functions of the skeleton?
1. Protects vital organs
2. Support to maintain posture
4. Mineral storage (calcium & phosphorus)
5. Hemopoiesis (performs blood cell formation in the red bone marrow)
What are the 5 types of bones?
These bones are small, cubical shaped, solid. They provide shock absorption
Give some examples of short bones:
These bones are long cylindrical shafts with wide protruding ends
Give some examples of long bones:
Give some examples of irregular bones:
These bones usually have curved surfaces; they provide protection
Give some examples of flat bones:
Small bones that are imbedded w/in the tendon portion of the musculotendinous unit; they reduce pressure and provide a mechanical advantage
Give some examples of sesamoid bones:
What is the long cylindirical shaft part of the bone called?
What is the hard, dense compact bone forming walls of diaphysis called?
What is the dense, fibrous membrane covering outer surface of diaphysis called?
What is between the walls of diaphysis, containing yellow or fatty marrow?
Medullary (marrow) cavity
The ends of long bones formed from cancellous (spongy) bone
The cartilage plate that separates diaphysis & epiphyses
Epiphyseal (growth) plate
Covers the epiphysis to provide cushioning effect & reduce friction
Articular (hyaline) cartilage
Develops from hyaline cartilage; grow rapidly into bone shaped structures, later develop into long bones
Cells that form new bone
Cells that resorb old bone
What are bones composed of?
Calcium caronate, calcium phosphate, collagen & water
Bone will adapt to the loads it is placed under
Wolff's law (football player example)
Property of bone that is low porosity, stiffer, withstands great stress, and is less strain
Property of bone that is spongy, high porosity (30-90%) and can undergo greater strain before fracturing
What are the 3 types of Bone Markings?
1. Processes that form joints
2. Processes that serve as attachment sites for muscles, tendons, and ligaments
Includes elevations & projections; form joints
Ridge of bone less prominent than a crest
Prominent, narrow, ridge-like projection (iliac of pelvis)
Projection located on or above on or above a condoyle (medial or lateral condoyle of humerous)
Any prominent projection
Sharp, slender projection
Line of union between two bones
Very large projection
Means "a little swelling"; small rounded projection
Means "swelling"; large rounded or roughened projection
Includes opening & grooves
Connection of bones at a joint usually to allow movement between surfaces of bones
What are the 3 major classifications according to structure & movement characteristics?
Slightly movable joints
Freely movable joints
Ex. of synarthrodial joints:
Skull sutures, teeth in mandible
Why are syndesmosis joints only slightly movable?
Bones are united by strong ligaments and allow minimal movement between bones
Joint is united by fibrocartilage allowing slight movement between the bones
Joint is separated by hyaline cartilage and allow slight movement between bones
Name some motions and examples of Arthrodial (gliding) joints:
M: Flexion, extension, rotation, abduction, adduction
E: Intercarpals & intertarslas
This diarthrodial joint only allows movement in one plane. Give examples
Ginglymus (hinge) joint
Elbow, knee, ankle
What kind of motions does the trochoidal (pivot, screw) joint allow? examples?
Rotation, supination, pronation
Antlatoaxial joint (ulna/radius)
Flexion, extension, abduction & adduction
One bone with an oval concave surface received by another bone with an oval convex surface
True ball & socket joints
Enarthrodial (hip & shoulder)
Sellar (saddle) joint
only found in thumbs
Used to measure amount of movement in a joint or measure a joint angles
Area through which a joint may normally be freely and painlessly moved
Range of Motion
Lateral movement away from midline of trunk in lateral plane
Movement medially toward midline of trunk in lateral plane
Bending movement that results in a decrease of angle in joint by bringing bones together
Straightening movement that results in an increase of angle in joint by moving bones apart
Circular movement of a limb that delineates an arc or describes a cone
Rotary movement around longitudinal axis of a bone away from midline of body
Rotary movement around longitudinal axis of a bone toward midline of body
Turning sole of foot outward or laterally
Turning sole of foot inward or medially
Superior movement of shoulder girdle
Inferior movement of shoulder girdle
Forward movement of shoulder girdle away from spine
Backward movement of shoulder girdle toward spine
Movement of the humerus away from the body in the scapular plane.
Movement of head and / or trunk laterally away from midline
Return of spinal column to anatomic position from lateral flexion
Abduction movement at wrist of thumb side of hand toward forearm
Adduction movement at wrist of little finger side of hand toward forearm
Diagonal movement of thumb across palmar surface of hand to make contact with the hand and/or fingers
Oppostion on thumb
Diagonal movement of the thumb as it returns to the anatomical position from opposition with the hand and/or fingers
Reposition of thumb
A series of points on one articular surface contacts with a series of points on another articular surface
A specific point on one articulating surface comes in contact with a series of points on another surface