Test 1- Part 3: Muscular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1- Part 3: Muscular System Deck (81):
1

How much body weight do muscles make up?

40-50%

2

What are muscle functions?

Joint movement
Dynamic stability of joints
Posture and support
Major producer of heat

3

What are the four muscle tissue properties?

Irritability
Contractility
Extensibility
Elasticity

4

Ability to return to shape after being contracted

Extensibility

5

Sensitive or responsive to chemical, electrical, and mechanical stimuli

Irritability

6

Ability to contract and develop tension against resistance when stimulated

Contractility

7

Ability to return to original shape after stretching

Elasticity

8

Example of muscle named after its shape:

Rhomboid

9

Example of muscle named after its size:

Gluteus maximus
Teres minor

10

Example of muscle named after its number of divisions:

Triceps brachii

11

Example of muscle named after its direction of fibers:

External oblique

12

Example of muscle named after its location:

Rectus femoris
Palmaris longus

13

Example of muscle named after its points of attachment

Coracobrachialis
Extensor hallus longus

14

Example of muscle named after its action:

Erector spinae
Supinator

15

Example of muscle named after its action & shape:

Pronator quadratus

16

Example of muscle named after its action & size:

Adductor magnus

17

Example of muscle named after its shape & location:

Serratus (means "notched") anterior

18

Example of muscle named after its location & attachment:

Brachioradialis

19

Example of muscle named after its location & number of divisions:

Biceps femoris

20

FIbers arranged parallel to length of the muscle; produce greater ROM and endurance

Parallel

21

Shorter fibers that are arranged obliquely to their tendon

Pennate

22

Types of parallel muscles:

Flat
Fusiform
Strap
Spincter
Radiate

23

Types of pennate muscles:

Unipennate
Bipennate
Multipennate

24

Thin and broad originating from broad, fibrous, sheet like aponeurosis allowing force distribution. Give example

Flat
Rectus abdominus & external oblique

25

Long muscle with uniform diameter throughout allowing force to be focused onto small bony targets. Give example:

Strap
Sartorius

26

Spindle-shaped with belly that tapers toward each end allowing force to be focused onto small bony targets. Give example:

Fusiform
Brachialis & brachioradialis

27

Fibers concentrically arranged around a body opening. Endless strap muscle to surround and close openings. Give example:

Spincter
Orbicularis oris (surrounds mouth)

28

Similar to flat on one end and fusiform on the other end. Give example:

Radiate
Pectoralis major & trapezius

29

Fibers run obliquely from a tendon on one side only. Give example:

Unipennate
Biceps femoris & tibialis posterior

30

Several tendons w/ fibers running diagonally between them. Give example:

Multipennate
Deltoid

31

Fibers run obliquely on both sides from central tendon

Rectus femoris

32

Muscles located within or belonging to the part on which they act

Intrinsic

33

Muscles that arise or originate outside of the body part on which they act

Extrinsic

34

The distal attachment of a muscle

Insertion

35

Specific movement of a joint that results from a contraction of a muscle that crosses the joint

Action

36

Usually the proximal attachment of a muscle

Origin

37

Tough, flexible bands of fibrous tissue that connect muscles to bones

Tendon

38

Central, fleshy portion of muscle

Gastor

39

• Tendinous expansion of dense fibrous connective tissue that is sheet like in appearance
• Serves as fascia to bind muscles together or to bone

Aponeurosis

40

• Band of fibrous connective tissue that envelopes, seperates, or binds parts of the body (muscles, organs, etc)
• Some joints have a fascia that form retinaculum to retain tendons close to the body

Fascia

41

What are the 3 muscle contractions?

Isometric
Isontonic
- Concentric
- Eccentric
Isokinetic

42

Tension develops as muscle shortens, causes movement against gravity

Concentric contraction

43

Maintains static or stable position; joint angle remains constant

Isometric contraction

44

Lengthens while maintaining tension; resistance overcomes force (negative)

Eccentric

45

Means "same speed"; uses concentric & eccentric muscle actions (dynamic)

Isokinetic contraction

46

What are the 5 roles of muscles?

Agonist
Antagonist
Stabilizers
Synergists
Neutralizers

47

Have the opposite concentric actions as agonists. Opposite side of joint

Antagonist

48

Surrounds joint or body part. Contracts to fixate or stabilize an area to allow another limb to exert force

Stabilizer

49

Any muscle that causes a specific joint motion.

Agonist
Prime movers & assisters

50

Neutralize unwanted motion in muscles that have multiple functions

Neutralizers

51

Muscles that assist in the action of an agonist but are not prime movers

Synergist

52

What are some determination of muscle actions?

Lines of pull
Dissection
Palpation
Models
EMG
Electrical stimulation

53

Combines a knowledge of the joint's functional design and the location of musculotendinous units

Lines of pull

54

What two systems work together resulting in all voluntary movement?

Muscular & nervous system

55

What are the 5 major parts of the central nervous system (CNS)?

Cerebral cortex
Basal ganglia
Cerebellum
Brain stem
Spinal cord

56

This CNS part controls maintenance of posture, equilibrium, and learned movements (walking, bike, driving).

Basal ganglia

57

This CNS part is the highest level of control and is where the creation of voluntary movement starts but not specific muscle activity

Cerebral cortex

58

This CNS part is the major integrator of sensory impulses and providing feedback

Cerebellum

59

This CNS part controls balance and rhythmic activities

Basal ganglia

60

This CNS part integrates all central nervous system activity through excitation and inhibition of neuromusclular actions

Brain stem

61

This CNS part is the common pathway between CNS and PNS

Spinal cord

62

This CNS part controls timing and intensity of contraction, assists in refinement

Cerebellum

63

This CNS part functions in maintaining a wakeful state

Brain stem

64

All the remaining nerves make up

Peripheral nervous system

65

This PNS division goes down (efferent) from the CNS to the muscles

Motor (Myotomes)

66

This PNS division goes up (afferent) from the receptors to the CNS

Sensory (Dermatomes)

67

Internal receptors located in the skin, joints, muscles, and tendons

Proprioceptors

68

This proprioception part is located in the muscle belly between fibers. Sensitive to stretch and rate of stretch (reflexes & balances)

Muscle spindle

69

This prevents your muscles from bursting. (tells/makes you stop when lifting too heavy)

Golgi tendon organ

70

Responds to changes in joint angles. Located arount joint capsules, ligaments, tendon, and beneath skin

Pacinian corpuscles

71

Located in deep layers of skin and joint capsules. Activated by strong and sudden joint movements as well as pressure changes

Ruffini's corpuscles

72

Single muscle neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates

Motor unit

73

Muscles will contract maximally or NOT AT ALL; amount of force depends on # of fibers recruited

All or none principle

74

Developed when muscle is stretched beyond resting length

Passive tension

75

Dependent on # of motor units and their respective muscle fibers recruited

Active tension

76

Max tension depends on the length of muscle during contraction

Muscle length-tension relationship

77

Rate of length change is related to amount of force production

Muscle force-velocity relationship

78

Cross and act on only one joint

Unilarticular

79

• Muscles that cross and act on two different joints
• May cause actions at one or both joints when contracted
• May shorten at one joint and lengthen at another

Biarticular

80

• Concurrent: squat to stand; hip and knee both extending
• Counterconcurrent: kicking a ball; hip flexes and knee extends

Concurrent vs. countercurrent

81

When agonist contracts, antagonist muscle groups must relax and lengthen

Reciprocal inhibition