Flashcards in Test 5: Spine Deck (43):
How many articulating vertebrae?
How many fused vertebrae?
How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx?
• 7 Cervical (neck) vertebrae
• 12 Thoracic (chest) vertebrae
• 5 Lumbar (lower back) vertebrae
• 5 Sacrum (posterior pelvic girdle) vertebrae
• 4 Coccyx (tail bone) vertebrae
What kind of curve does your cervical have?
What kind of curve does your thoracic have?
What kind of curve does your lumbar have?
What is the purpose of the curvature?
• Increase strength
• Absorption of forces
Increased posterior concavity of lumbar & cervical curves
Lordosis (bent backwards)
Increased anterior concavity of thoracic curve
Reduction of normal lordotic curve, resulting in a flat-back appearance
Lateral curvatures or sideward deviations of spine
How many pairs of ribs do you have?
How many pairs are true ribs and where do they attach?
How many are false ribs and where do they attach?
What is the most mobile articulation of the spine?
What kind of joint is the atlanto-axial joint?
Central gelatinous, pulpy substance
Vertebral Column Flexor Muscles:
• Rectus Abdominis
• External Oblique
• Internal Oblique
• Psoas Major (With origin fixed)
• Iliacus (with origin fixed)
Origin of rectus abdominis:
Pubic crest, pubic symphysis
Insertion of rectus abdominis:
Cartilage of 5th-7th ribs and xiphoid process
Action of the rectus abdominis:
• Flex the vertebral column
• Tilt pelvis posteriorly
Origin of the external oblique:
External surfaces of 5th -12th ribs
Insertion of the external oblique:
Anterior part of the iliac crest, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
Action of the external oblique:
• Flex the vertebral column
• Compress abdominal contents
• Laterally flex vertebral column to same side
• Rotate vertebral column to the opposite side
Aponeurosis is deep to the:
Origin of the internal oblique abdominals:
Lateral inguinal ligament, iliac crest and thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion of the internal oblique abdominals:
Internal surface of lower three ribs, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
Action of the internal oblique abdominals:
• Flex the vertebral column • Compress abdominal contents
• Laterally flex vertebral column to the same side
• Rotate vertebral column to the same side
Origin of the transverse abdominis:
Lateral inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia and internal surface of lower 6 ribs
Insertion of the transverse abdominis:
Abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
TVA, and obliques are responsible:
Stability of the core when doing other exercises
Action of the transverse abdominis:
Compress abdominal contents
Extension and ipsilateral side flexion
Erector spinae group
Extension & contralateral rotation
• Semispinalis Capitis
Extension, ipsilateral rotation, & lateral flexion
Taking right arm to left knee:
Origin of the quadratus lumborum:
Posterior iliac crest
Insertion of the quadratus lumborum:
Last rib and L1-L4 transverse processes
Action of the quadratus lumborum:
• Laterally flexes vertebral column to same side
• Laterally tilt (elevate) the pelvis
• Assist to extend the vertebral column
• Fix the last rib during forced inhalation and exhalation
Origin of the sternocleidomastoid:
- Sternal head
• Top of manubrium
- Clavicular head
• Medial ⅓ of the clavicle
Insertion of the sternocleidomastoid:
Mastoid process of the temporal bone and the lateral portion of superior nuchal line of occiput