Test 4 Flashcards Preview

HI 101-8 > Test 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 4 Deck (170):
1

Feudalism

A way of life based on the ownership and use of land

2

Fief

Land

3

Chivalry

Code of conduct for the nobility and the knights

4

Heraldry

Colorful and unique symbols, emblems, and designs displayed on armor, shields, and banners

5

Manors

Estates that belonged to the nobles

6

Serfs

Farmers of the manors

7

Demesne

The lord's fields

8

Steward

Supervised overall running of manor and acted as judge in the manor's court

9

Bailiff

Supervises cultivation of the lord's demesne, collected rents, inspected serf's work

10

Truce of God

Forbade fighting from Friday-Sunday

11

Peace of God

Priests denied sacraments to persons who robbed churches, took a serf's property, or killed non combatants during battles

12

Pope Urban II
(Byzantine emperor)

Proclaimed beginning of crusades in 1095 for purpose of capturing holy land from Muslims and holding it for Christendom

13

First Crusade

Conquered Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, and edessa

14

Second crusade

Bernard of Clairvaux
Louis VII of France
Conrad III of Germany

Accomplished nothing

15

Third Crusade

"Crusade of Kings"
Accomplished little
Richard I the Lion Hearted
Frederick Barbarossa (German)
Phillip Augustus (French)

16

Richard I in third crusade

Secured Saladin's agreement to European control of holy land coastal cities and pilgrimage rights to Jerusalem

17

Frederick Barbarossa

(Third crusade)
Drowned in Asia Minor, prompting most of his soldiers to return home

18

Phillip Augustus

(Third crusade)
Led his men back to Europe...

19

Fourth crusade

Never even reaches Holy land, instead plundered Constantinople, a city of Christendom

20

Burgs

New towns that sprang up beside fortresses

21

Guilds

An early form of trade unionism, consisted of voluntary associations among merchants, artisans, and craftsmen

22

Hanseatic League

A confederation of northern German towns forming trade alliances

23

Flanders

A low-lying region in western Belgium; important center of trade and culture

24

Medici

A leading banking family

25

Black Death

A bubonic plague that killed 1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population

26

Salerno

First medieval university

27

Trivium

Grammar, rhetoric, logic

28

Quadrivium

Arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy

29

Scholasticism

An attempt to combine Greek philosophy with Romanism

30

Thomas Aquinas
(Italian)

"Dumb Ox"; Thomism

31

Thomism

Denied totality of man's sinful nature and his dependence upon God for everything

32

William of Ockham
(English)

Believes holy scriptures were the only true authority

33

John Wycliffe

Began the first translation of Bible into english; followers called Lollards

34

John Huss

Wycliffe' writings helped him to see the light; followers (Hussites) printed first non-Catholic hymnbook in modern history

35

Gerhard Groote

Founded and organized the brethren of the common life

36

Thomas à Kempis

Wrote "The Imitation of Christ"

37

Dante

Wrote "Divine Comedy"

38

Geoffrey Chaucer

"The Canterbury Tales"

39

Emphasis of Italian renaissance

Humanities

40

Humanities

History, grammar, rhetoric, poetry

41

Petrarch

"Father of Humanism"
Wrote "Letters to Ancient Authors"

42

Boccaccio

Wrote "The Decameron"

43

The only book of lasting importance during Italian renaissance

"The Prince"

44

Wrote "The Prince"

Niccolò Machiavelli

45

Patrons

People who use their own money to support the arts

46

Tried to make paintings look real; "the Last Judgement"

Giotto

47

The three geniuses

Leonardo da Vinci
Raphael
Michelangelo

48

Mona Lisa, The Last Supper

Leonardo da Vinci

49

(Known for brilliant use of color)
Sistine Madonna, The School of Athens

Raphael

50

Sistine Chapel, David, Moses
(Supported by Medici family)

Michelangelo

51

Greatest Italian lyric poet of 16th century

Michelangelo

52

Invented movable type printing press

Johann Gutenberg 1440

53

Gutenberg Bible

Gutenberg produced first printed edition of the Bible in 1456

54

Earliest know inhabitants of British Isles

Celts

55

Anglo-Saxons

Jutes, Angles, and Saxons who conquered Britain

56

Greatest Saxon poem that still remains

Beowulf

57

First Archbishop of Canterbury

Augustine

58

Archbishop of Canterbury

Most influential church office in England

59

The first great king of England

Alfred the great

60

Became king when Vikings conquered England, increased foreign trade, surprisingly popular with English men

Canute the Dane

61

William the Conqueror fought Harold Godwin for the throne

Battle of Hastings

62

Who won the battle of Hastings?

William the Conqueror

63

Who were the two notable Norman kings?

William the Conqueror and Henry I

64

Implemented the Domesday Book and the Great Council

William the Conqueror

65

Domesday book

Census

66

Great Council

Composed only of chief vassals

67

William the Conqueror's son; reign characterized by wisdom and fairness

Henry I

68

Implemented the "Charter of Liberties" and the Exchequer

Henry I

69

Henry I promised to end heavy taxation of he nobles and the church, and not to abuse his power as king...

"Charter of Liberties"

70

Nobles and administrators who looked after the government's finances and acted as judges over revenue matters

the Exchequer

71

Initiated the Plantagenet line of kings

Henry II

72

Laws common to all Englishmen

Common law

73

Group of people called to give a verdict in regard to a legal matter

Trial by jury

74

Henry II's son

Richard I

75

Richard I's mother who maintained the realm in his absence

Eleanor of Aquitaine

76

Most hated king in English history

John

77

Richard I's brother

John

78

Where king John signed the Magna Carta in 1215

Runnymede

79

Magna Carta

Forbade king to levy new taxes...
Habeas corpus
Trial by jury and due process of law

80

Habeas corpus

The right of an arrested person to appear before a court to determine if his imprisonment is legal

81

Constitution

A written plan which sets up a form of government and establishes its basic governing principles

82

Called the first meeting of parliament in 1265

Simon de Montfort

83

Simon de Montfort

Called first meeting of parliament in 1265

84

Representative government

Parliament

85

Model Parliament

Edward I

86

Edward I

Model Parliament

87

What did Parliament set up during the reign of Edward III

House of Lords
House of Commons

88

House of Lords

Great nobles and high church leaders

89

House of Commons

Representatives came together to represent entire English nation

90

(Hundred Years' War)
England won famous battles at...

Crécy, Poitiers, Agincourt

91

(Hundred Years' War)
England lost all its land in France except...

Calais

92

(The Wars of the Roses)
Red rose...

House of Lancaster

93

(The Wars of the Roses)
White rose

House of York

94

The Lancasters "won" the Wars of the Roses in 1485 at...

The Battle of Bosworth Field

95

First Tudor king of England

Henry VII

96

When did the Tudor line of kings begin?

After the Wars of the Roses

97

(France)
Began Capetian line-- beginning of the modern French nation

Hugh Capet

98

The only thing Hugh Capet controlled

Ile-de-France

99

Made the French monarchy stronger than any other single noble in France

Philip II (Augustus)

100

Began quarrel with __________ over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent;
"Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy"

Philip IV began quarrel with Boniface VIII

101

"Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy"

Quarrel between Philip IV and Boniface VIII

102

Estates-General

French version of Parliament

103

French version of Parliament

Estates-General

104

Results of Hundred Years' War

1. Estates-General face taxation rights to king
2. French developed real hatred of foreigners, especially English
3. Feudalism ended

105

Who invented the long bow?

The Welsh

106

Used for navigation

Kmal

107

Spain and Portugal are located on the...

Iberian peninsula

108

The romans' name for Spain

Hispania

109

Who invaded Spain in 711?

Moors

110

The most famous alcazar (palace) in Spain?

Alhambra

111

Spanish national hero

El Cid

112

Ferdinand was from

Aragon

113

Isabella was from

Castile

114

Ferdinand and Isabella married and united WHAT two kingdoms in Spain?

Aragon and Castile

115

Spanish scholar who wrote grammar book...

Antonia de Nebrija

116

Spanish Inquisition...

To root up and destroy all "heretics" in Spain

117

The first Grand Inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition

Tomás de Torquemada

118

When the Romans conquered Portugal they named it...

Lusitania

119

Whose reign marked the beginning of Portugal's greatest days of glory?

John I

120

John I?

Reign marked the beginning of Portugal's greatest days of glory

121

Accomplishment of crusades

Revived European interest in trade with the Orient

122

Major objective of the Age of Exploration

Finding a sea route to the Far East

123

Began a school of navigators

Prince Henry the Navigator

124

First European to reach Far East by sea

Vasco da Gama

125

Vasco da Gama

First European to reach the Far East by sea

126

October 12, 1492

Columbus discovered new world

127

Columbus discovered new world

October 12, 1492

128

First great civilization in the Western Hemisphere

Mayas

129

Mayas

First great civilization in the Western Hemisphere

130

Incas

Most important Indian civilization in South America

131

Most important Indian civilization in South America

Incas

132

Aztecs

Most powerful Native American empire at the beginning of the age of exploration

133

Most powerful Native American empire at the beginning of the age of exploration

Aztecs

134

Conquered new world and spread Romanism, by force if necessary

Conquistadors

135

Made first Spanish landing in America (Florida)

Ponce de León

136

Ponce de León

Made first Spanish landing in America (Florida)

137

Vasco de Balboa

Crossed isthmus of panama and discovered Pacific Ocean

138

Crossed isthmus of panama and discovered Pacific Ocean

Vasco de Balboa

139

Ferdinand Magellan

3 year voyage around world

140

Sailed around world

Ferdinand Magellan

141

Hernando Cortés

Conquered Aztec Indians

142

Conquered Aztec Indians

Hernando Cortés

143

Francisco Pizarro

Conquered Inca Indians of Peru

144

Conquered Inca Indians of Peru

Francisco Pizarro

145

Francisco Coronado

Discovered the Grand Canyon

146

Discovered the Grand Canyon

Francisco Coronado

147

Hernando de Soto

Discovered Mississippi River

148

Discovered Mississippi River

Hernando de Soto

149

Juan Cabrillo

Explored coast of California

150

Explores coast of California

Juan cabrillo

151

Drawn by Pope Alexander VI in 1493

Line of Demarcation

152

Pedro Cabral

Discovered Brazil

153

Discovered Brazil

Pedro Cabral

154

Giovanni de Verrazano (Italian, but explored for France)

Explored eastern coast of North America

155

Explored eastern coast of North America

Giovanni de Verrazano

156

Jacques Cartier

Discovered St. Lawrence River

157

Discovered St. Lawrence River

Jacques Cartier

158

John Cabot

First modern explorer to reach North American mainland

159

First modern explorer to reach North American mainland

John Cabot

160

Founded Newfoundland

John Cabot

161

1060

University of Salerno

162

1095-1099

First crusade / Crusaders establish 4 kingdoms in holy land

163

1334-1351

Black Death in Europe kills 25 million people

164

1382

First English bible

165

1440

Gutenberg invents movable type printing press

166

1066

Battle of Hastings/ beginning of Norman conquest

167

1215

Magna Carta

168

1295

Model Parliament in England

169

1302

First meeting of estates general (France)

170

1492

King Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Spain defeat last moorish kingdom in Spain/ Columbus discovered new world/ Spanish Inquisition begins