Test 5 Flashcards Preview

Biology 1108K > Test 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 5 Deck (151):
1

The patterns of growth that contribute to plant body plan

Up and out

2

These are:
-Regions of cell division
-Also called initials

Meristems

3

-Compare to stem cells
-One daughter cell differentiates while the other remains this type of cell

These refer to meristems being what?

Initials

4

Produces primary plant body (non woody structures)

Apical meristems

5

Where are apical meristems found?

Stems

6

Produce secondary plant body (wood and bark)

Lateral meristems

7

Where are lateral meristems found?

Along the sides of the tree

8

What are the two types of meristem?

Apical and lateral

9

These are:
-Found at the tips of roots and stems and in buds
-Responsible for primary growth

Apical meristems

10

-Elongation of shoots and roots
-Formation of roots, stems, and leaves

All refer to?

Primary growth in plants

11

What are the two types of apical meristems?

Shoot and root

12

These:
-Supply the cells that extend stems and branches, allowing more leaves to form

Shoot apical meristems

13

These:
-Supply the cells that extend roots, enabling the plant to "look for" more water and minerals

(Meristem)

Root apical meristems

14

Apical meristems give rise to what?

Primary meristems (a generic name for stem cells)

15

These:
-Enable the root to grow
-Have the root cap
-Is the zone of cell division

Root apical meristems

16

This:
-Develops from initial cells
-Protects the root

Root cap

17

The source of meristems

Zone of cell division

18

-Cells lengthen and push the root into the soil

Zone of cell elongation

19

The site where cells are differentiating

Zone of cell maturation

20

-Gives rise to the epidermis
--Is the outer layer of cells
--Gives root protection and absorbs minerals and water

Protoderm

21

-Produces the cortex
--Stores nutrients
-Produces inner layer of cortex
--Endodermis

Ground meristem

22

-Produces the stele
--Is the vascular system (xylem and phloem)

Procambium

23

Contains the pericycle, xylem, and phloem

The stele

24

-Where lateral roots form
-Can contribute to secondary growth

Pericycle

25

What do parenchyma cells do?

Store carbohydrates

26

This contains:
-Parenchyma cells
-In monocot roots only
-In stems of eudicots and monocots

Pith

27

Lays down the beginning of leaves and axillary buds

Pith

28

-Leaf and bud primordia
--Bulge on shoot apical meristems
--Produce leaves

The stem's primary meristems

29

_____ apical meristems form at the bases of leaf primordia.

Shoot

30

Primary xylem and phloem are produced by what?

Procambium

31

What is the vascular system arranged in?

Bundles

32

Are vascular bundles arranged the same or different?

Different

33

What do vascular bundles contain?

Xylem and phloem

34

Vascular bundles are scattered.

Monocots

35

Vascular bundles are arranged in a cylinder and the pith is at the center.

Eudicots

36

Vascular cambium is found where?

Phloem

37

These produce wood and bark

Lateral meristems

38

What are the two types of cambium?

Vascular and cork

39

Supplies cells that will become wood and bark

Vascular cambium

40

Wood and bark are what?

Secondary xylem and phloem

41

Produces waxy-walled cork cells and some of the cells that become bark

Cork cambium

42

Secondary growth gives rise to what?

Wood and bark

43

What does vascular cambium produce?

Secondary xylem and phloem

44

What produces primary xylem and phloem?

Procambium of apical meristem

45

What thickens stems and roots?

Vascular cambium

46

How does vascular cambium thicken stems and roots?

Via initial cells that are undifferentiated

47

Trunks are also known as what?

Mature stems

48

What do tree trunks have?

Annual rings

49

Annual rings are seen where? And why?

Temperate zone forest trees. Seasonal changes.

50

What happens to trees in the winter?

They become dormant and stop growing rings

51

When molecules move from high to low concentration

Simple diffusion

52

The diffusion of H2O molecules from low solute to high solute

Osmosis

53

Requires energy and proteins. Drives molecules up the concentration gradient, low to high.

Active transport

54

(Facilitated diffusion) high to low concentration

Passive transport

55

A measure of the effect of solutes on the osmotic behavior of a solution

Solute (osmotic) potential

56

Greater solute concentration equals what?

More negative
(lower) solute potential

57

-The overall tendency of a solution to take up water from pure water across a membrane
-Water moves toward a region of lower (more negative) water potential

Water potential

58

The pressure going in the backwards direction

Pressure potential

59

-Turgor pressure
-The pressure outward - causes resistance to more H2O moving in

Pressure potential

60

-Movement of a solution due to a difference in pressure potential
-Through xylem and phloem

Bulk flow

61

These are in our kidneys to help concentrate our urine if dehydrated and to get rid of excess H2O

Aquaporins

62

-In plants and animals
-Are channel proteins

Aquaporins

63

Minerals have what?

Charges

64

-Can't diffuse across membranes
-Need transporter/carrier/channel proteins

Minerals

65

-Increasingly more negative water potential from soil to stele
Where is this happening?

The root

66

What are the two pathways by which water and ions get to the xylem from the soil?

Apoplast and symplast

67

What does apoplast mean?

Away from living material

68

What does symplast mean?

Together with living material

69

Water and ions also get to the xylem from the soil via what?

The endodermis

70

-Produced by ground meristem
-Has casparian strip

Endodermis

71

What color is the casparian strip?

Red

72

-Part of the endodermal wall
-Made up of hydrophobic molecules
--Prevent water from moving between cells
-Forces water into cells
--Symplast
--Once in stele they enter into the apoplast

Casparian strip

73

What isn't responsible for moving water through the xylem?

Pumping cells and roots

74

What is responsible for moving water through the xylem?

The pulling force of leaves

75

Transpiration-cohesion-tension mechanism

Water being pulled up a tree

76

TCT Mechanism:
-Concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere is lower than in a leaf
-Water vapor leaves plant through stomata

Transpiration

77

TCT Mechanism:
-Is between H2O molecules
-Polar
-Forms H bonds

Cohesion

78

TCT Mechanism:
Evaporative loss of water from leaves indirectly generates a pulling force on the water in apoplast of leaves

Tension

79

The leaves are coated with a waxy cuticle which is what?

Impermeable to water and CO2

80

How does a leaf balance water loss and CO2 gain?

Stomata

81

-Pores in the epidermis
-Consist of guard cells

Stomata

82

When are stomata open and closed?

Open = day
Close = night

83

When do stomata close during the day?

When the plant is losing too much water

84

What are the cues for opening and closing of stomata?

Light, low CO2 levels, and water potential

85

Stomata closing during the night explains what?

Why they stay open during the day

86

Low levels of this in the intercellular spaces of a leaf cause stomata to open.

CO2

87

-The tendency of a solution to take up water from pure water across a membrane
-If water is too low, then stomata will close

Describes water potential

88

Where does photosynthesis occur?

Mesophyll

89

The movement of carbohydrates and other solutes through the plant in phloem

Translocation

90

Sucrose, amino acids, minerals, etc

The carbohydrates moved through the phloem

91

Where do carbohydrates move (from, to)?

From sources to sinks

92

Photosynthesis and storage

Where carbohydrates are moved from (Sources)

93

Immature leaves, roots, flowers, and developing fruit

Where carbohydrates are moved to (Sinks)

94

The pulling force in a plant

Tension

95

The two places where metabolic energy is required during translocation

Loading and unloading stations

96

Which station?
-From sources into phloem

Loading

97

Which station?
-Removal of solutes from phloem into sinks

Unloading

98

How can phloem move sap?

Bidirectional (up and down)

99

How does water move up xylem?

Evaporation

100

Removing a ring of bark (the layer that contains phloem)

Girdling

101

What happens when solutes accumulate above the girdle?

Swelling

102

What happens to the bark beneath a girdle? Why?

It dies because it no longer receives nutrients

103

-Carbon
-Hydrogen
-Oxygen
-Nitrogen

The food substances that have "ingredients" of macromolecules

104

-Sulfur
-Phosphorus
-Magnesium
-Iron

Inorganic molecules that can also be mineral nutrients

105

Organisms that make organic compounds from simple inorganic compounds

Autotrophs

106

Plants, some protists, some bacteria

Autotrophs

107

-Fungi and animals that must ingest organic compounds
-Depend directly or indirectly on autotrophs

Organisms that are different from hetertrophs

108

Most autotrophs are photosynthesizers, meaning?

They use light to produce organic compounds

109

Some autotrophs are chemolithotrophs (bacteria), meaning?

They get energy from reduced inorganic substances

110

Hydrogen sulfide

An inorganic compound that chemolithotrophs get energy from

111

These are:
-Required to complete a life cycle
-Can't be replaced by another element

Essential elements

112

Macronutrients and micronutrients

The two categories that essential elements fall into

113

This is made of living and non living components

Soil

114

What does soil provide for plants? (5 things)

1) Mechanical support
2) Nutrients
3) Water
4) Bacteria and other organisms
5) Harmful substances

115

The structure of soil depth refers to?

Its profile

116

What are the layers of soil called?
-They can be significantly different and leaching may occur

Horizons

117

When minerals dissolve in H2O and are carried to deeper horizons (unavailable to roots)

Leaching

118

-The association of fungi with roots
-Fungus that expands root surface

Mycorrhizae

119

Why are mycorrhizae important?

Roots can't get enough nutrients from the soil

120

Phosphorus (in the form of phosphate) is what?

Another way plants get nutrients

121

Plants and bacteria participate in what?

Global nitrogen cycle

122

Nitrogen fixers release ammonium and ammonia

Fixation

123

Nitrifiers oxidize ammonium and ammonia

Nitrification

124

-Reduce nitrate back to NH4
-Occurs in plants

Nitrate reduction

125

-Bacteria in soil
-Return N2 to atmosphere

Dentrification

126

Why do plants need nitrogen?

For proteins and nucleic acids

127

Where can we find N2?

The atmosphere

128

Why can't plants use N2 directly?

It's extremely stable because of the triple bond

129

Where do plants get N2 from?

Nitrogen fixing bacteria

130

What do nitrogen fixing bacteria do?

Fix nitrogen by converting N2 to ammonia (NH4), which makes all other life possible

131

What type of bacteria live in oceans and freshwater? Give an example.

Photosynthetic bacteria; cyanobacteria

132

What type of bacteria live on land?

Free living soil bacteria

133

When do free living soil bacteria release nitrogen?

When they die

134

What happens with the bacteria that live in association with plant roots?

They release up to 90% of the nitrogen they fix to the plants and release amino acids into the soil

135

What are rhizobium?

A nitrogen fixing bacteria

136

These live in a mutualistic relationship with legumes
-Peas, soybeans, clover, and alfalfa

Rhizobium

137

These:
-Infect plant roots and develop nodules
-Have an enzyme called nitrogenase

Rhizobium : Nitrogen fixing bacteria

138

Catalyzes reaction that reduces nitrogen gas

Nitrogenase

139

What do legumes attract? How?

Rhizobium; They release flavonoids

140

What do flavonoids do?

Trigger transcription of bacterial nod genes (encode nodulation - nod - factors)

141

What happens after the infection of plant cells?

Bacteria secrete nod factors

142

What happens when nod factors are secreted?

Cells in the root cortex divide, producing primary nodule meristem and nodule tissue

143

Where is primary nodule meristem found?

Only in legumes

144

What does the outer layer of nodule exclude? Why?

O2 because it inhibits nitrogenase

145

What is leghemoglobin and what does it do?

A plant protein that binds O2

146

This:
-Has iron and binds O2 like human hemoglobin
-Binds most of the O2 so only a few free O2 can't significantly inhibit nitrogenase

Leghemoglobin

147

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi

Mycorrhizae

148

Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Bacteria

Rhizobium

149

Why are there carnivorous plants?

The soil, sun, and air don't meet all their needs

150

Where are carnivorous plants found?

Nutrient deficient soil
-Bogs
--Nitrogen lacking

151

Name two parasitic plants

Dodders and mistletoe