Testing - AMT - Chapter 11 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Testing - AMT - Chapter 11 Deck (40):
1

Why was it taken for granted that 
to construct reliable and valid test was:
- Easier: Speaking + Writing
- Harder: Listening + Reading

"- Scoring (objective/subjective)
- Speak + Write = Observable
- We want ""see"" listening & reading through reinvestment tasks
"

2

Problem of testing reading

- Uncertainty of skills involved
- Difficult to evaluate successful measurement

3

Testing Reading Operations
(the two types of operations)

- Expeditious reading operations (quick and efficient)
- Careful reading operations (slow and careful)

4

Expeditious reading operations
(Categories)

- Skimming
- Search Reading
- Scanning

5

Careful reading operations
(key words + category)

- identify
- interpret
- outline
- distinguish
- recognize
- MAKE INFERENCES

6

4 types of Reading ability

- Skimming
- Scanning
- Search Reading
- Careful Reading

7

Skimming

General Idea (quickly & efficiently):
 - main idea
 - establish the structure
 - decide relevance

8

Search Reading

- Find info on predetermined topic

9

Scanning

- Specific words/phrases
- Figures, percentages
- specific index item
- specific name, bib.ref.

10

Propositional inference

- Do NOT depend on information from outside the text

11

Factor favorised OVER VALIDITY

Practicality

12

Pragmatic Inferences

Combines Outside Reading info + Into Reading info

13

Propositional vs. Pragmatic inferences

- Propositional = Text Only
- Pragmatic = Knowledge + Text

14

Careful Reading

- details
- inferences (analysis)
- b/w the lines

15

Listening/Reading
vs
Writer

- Interact with Writer
- Not Passive

16

When tested for Vocabulary+Grammar when Reading

= --validity

17

A Text 
Good for Reading = Good for Listening?

- Not necessary
- Listening text needs to be Real Life

18

While Writing items (to test reading)
- DO:

- Present items in the Text Structure order
- Make items independant (do not answer other questions)

19

Test Reading
1st Step

- Always Define Construct
- Question 1: Purpose of Reading

20

Better Measurement of Reading

Directly

21

When you test reading
- You Should NOT

- Test Writing

22

A Good DIRECT method to test reading 

- With all same background students:
TRANSLATION

23

Best Method to test Reading+Writing Simultaneously

Summary Writing

24

Specification of text types Expected for Candidates
- Parameters

- Types (text)
- Forms (text)
- Graphic features
- Topics
- Style
- Intended Readership
- Length
- Readability
- Range of Vocabulary
- Range of Grammar

25

Text types/topic should be Adapted to Context

- Characteristics of Ss 
(not too much: they still have to read it, not know all about it)

26

Text Forms
- Choice

Text form = description, argumentation, narration, etc.
- Choose from curriculum

27

Define Topics

- General: non-technical
or
- Relation/Candidates: Familiar

28

Why Specify so much Text to include in test

- Validity: Representative of Candidates Ability
- Backwash: Narrow type tested, Narrow type practiced

29

Testing Reading
3 Steps of Creation Process

- Specifying what the candidate should be able to do
- Setting the Task
- Scoring

30

Specifying what the reader should be able to do
- Testing Reading

- Operations
- Text
- Speed
- Criterial Level of Performance

31

Speed

- words/minutes
- expeditious not expected to read all the words

32

Criterial level of performance

- NOT w/ norm-referenced testing
- Reading should be:
     -  Criterion-Referenced Testing.

33

Successful choice of text depends on practice

- experience
- judgement
- common sense

34

Selecting texts
- Tricks

- Keep Specifications in Mind
- Length (appropriate)
- Amap/passages (valid.+rel.)
- interest of candidates
- avoid text w/ info candidates' general knowledge

35

Writing items
- reading

- Measure ability in which we are interested
- Elicit Reliable behaviour
- Allows Reliable scoring

36

(Reading) - Test Technique 
Identifying Order

Multiple Choice
(need to understand Question + Text)

37

(Reading) - Test Technique 
Identifying Referents

- Part of micro-skills (what does it stand for)

38

(Reading) - Test Technique 
Guessing word meaning from context

Micro-skills (find a word in paragraph with same meaning)
- not only to guess but understand context

39

Testing Reading (which language for items + Responses)

- within candidates ability
- minimal demand on writing ability

40

Writing items for Reading
- Procedures

- Specify Operations
- Determine tasks reasonable for Candidates
- Draft items (par.+lines #, collegues, modify text)