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Flashcards in Testing -MT- PPT Deck (38):
1

Pragmatic Knowledge
(Definition)

How utterances or sentences are related to the communicative goals of the language user and to the features of the language use setting

2

Pragmatic Knowledge
(2 Categories)

A. Functional Knowledge
B. Sociolinguistic Knowledge

3

Sociolinguistic Knowledge
(def)

utterances,sentences,texts related to features of Language use Settings

-i.e. knowledge of genres, dialects/ varieties, registers, natural or idiomatic expressions, cultural references and figures of speech

4

Functional Knowledge

how utterances or sentences and texts are related to the:
communicative goals of language users

(knowledge of ideational, manipulative, heuristic, imaginative functions)

5

Areas of Metacognitive Strategy Use

-Goal Setting (deciding what one is going to do)
-Appraising (taking stock of what needed)
-Planning (deciding how to use what one has)

6

Goal Setting

(deciding what one is going to do)

7

Appraising

taking stock of what
- needed
- one has to work with
- how well one has done

8

Planning

deciding how to use what one has

9

Approaches to language testing

- The essay-translation approach (pre-scientific era)
- The structuralist approach (psychometric era)
- The integrative approach (psycholinguistic-sociolinguistic era)
- The communicative approach

10

The essay-translation approach (pre-scientific era)

- Reading/Writing (to analyse language, out of context)
- Translation (no practical/communicative purpose)
- Formal aspect of language (gramm. analysis)
- No speaking or listening
- Pre-scientific era (no need for expertise to make tests)
- Culture and bias towards the language under study

11

The structuralist approach (psychometric era)

-No context
-Detached sentences or vocabulary
-Individual skills at a time
-Habit formation the basic underlying principle
-Belief in structure in the language and that learning a language is equal to mastering those structures, through ample practice
-Reliable measurement was important (psychometrics)
-Since sub-skills lend themselves better to measurement, no direct testing

12

The integrative approach (psycholinguistic-sociolinguistic era)

-Language skills were not separated
-Skills are measured integratively
-Global view of proficiency
-Interviews, essay writing, dictation, cloze are examples of tests of this type.

13

The communicative approach

-Communication is basic importance (little attention to accuracy)
-Language integratively w/ communication
-Use (specific purposes) over usage (knowing about the language)
-Needs-based (you need to know specific students’ needs before making the test)
- Profiles of abilities w/ various degrees of detail

14

Why do we test?

- Compare and/or select students
- Locate areas of difficulty
- Increase teachers’ efficiency
- Evaluate the effectiveness of Syllabus/Methods/Materials
- Reinforce learning

15

Purposes of language tests

- Identification of students’ weaknesses and strengths
- Screening, selection and placement
- Measure Ss’ ability in language
- Measure Ss’ learning
- Research Criteria

16

Types of tests

- Diagnostic tests
- Placement tests
- Proficiencytests
- Achievement tests
- Computer Adaptive Tests

17

Assessment for learning
- Goal

Making learners aware of the ‘gap’ b/w

- Now possible

- Goal in language learning

18

Assessment for learning
- Approach

Pragmatic approach to classroom assessment

19

Assessment for Learning
- Characteristics

-Traditional/sequential approach to classroom assessment vs.
-Formative assessment to improve learning (not to compare learners with one another)
-Diagnosis of individual learning needs
-Modification of teaching and learning activities
-Improvement of students’ motivation and self- esteem (feedback on learning)
-Providing feedback on work rather than scores

20

Assessment for learning
- Adjusting teaching practice

improve learning through assessment

21

Assessment for learning
-Questioning

Initiation-Response-Feedback pattern: 
longer wait times

22

Assessment for learning
-Task design

- Open-ended tasks
- Group-/peer-tasks
- Collaborative tasks
- ‘Noticing the gap’ tasks

23

Assessment for learning

- Techniques for improving motivation through collaboration, involvement and responsibility in learning and assessment

- Self- and peer-assessment
- Portfolio assessment

24

Self- and peer-assessment

-learners given the criteria (teachers judge work)
-learners trained to rate themselves and peers
-learners aware of  ‘gap’ b/w -produced now-target performance-
-potential drawbacks: extensive training required, time allotment, results can fluctuate, or be dependable for short periods of time

25

Portfolio assessment

-Samples of work and a commentary are saved side by side
-Wide sampling of the work of particular student
-Leads to increased Motivation:
collaboration, inclusiveness, involvement, responsibility

26

Dynamic assessment
- Types of mediation

Interventionist: similar mediation for different learners
Interactionist: learner-specific mediation

27

Graduated prompt

Mediator creates task w/ grades series of questions ranging from implicit to explicit

28

Testing the limits

Mediator gives feedback to the learners
- asks them to express the problems while completing the tasks, 
- and if have solutions to those problems

29

TEST USEFULNESS
- Principles

• Principle 1: Overall usefulness Maximized, rather than individual qualities that affect usefulness.
• Principle 2: The individual test qualities cannot be evaluated independently, but must be evaluated in terms of their combined effect on the overall usefulness of the test.
• Principle 3: Test usefulness and the appropriate balance among the different qualities cannot be prescribed in general, but must be
determined for each specific testing situation.

30

Reliability
- Definition

Consistency of measurement across different characteristics of the testing situation

31

Factors affecting reliability

-Test longer
- Items that discriminate
- Do not give the test-takers much choice 
- Clear items
- Clear instructions
- Tests well laid out and perfectly legible 
- Tests as objective as possible
(Detailed scoring key + Multiple raters/trained raters + decide acceptable responses)

32

The purpose of construct definition is to:

-specify the abilities to be assessed
-determine what it is we have to ask the learners to do

33

How to draw up test specifications2?

-----Item/task specification (test content ) 
-input materials (text types, topics, structural, voc. range) 
-instructions
-prompts
-----Evidence specification
-expected response 
-scoring procedures

34

How to draw up test specifications

- Item/task spec (test content)
- Evidence spec
- Assembly spec
- Presentation spec
- Delivery spec

35

Item/task specification (test content)

-input materials (text types, topics, voc. range) 
-instructions
-prompts

36

Evidence specification

-expected response 
-scoring procedures

37

Assembly specification

-test structure
-item types 
-channel/medium 
-timing 
-technique

38

Common test techniques

- Multiple-choice items 
- Cloze procedure
- C-test
- Dictation 
- Translation
- Oral interview
- Composition writing
- Summarizing