Ultimate Goal (teaching, testing, learning)
Native Speaker's Language Knowledge
Lado's Model of Language Proficiency
Language as a system of communication
Language as a a system of communication (comprises)
- Phonemes (smallest)
Communicative Competence (History)
- Lado's language proficiency- Hymes (1972)- Canale and Swain (1980)- Canale (1983)- Bachman (1990)- Bachman and Palmer (1996, 2010) - most complete
- Human ability to use language social function(possible, feasible, appropriate)- Non Linguistic Elements- Language Knowledge(competence - grammar+use vs.)- Performance
Cognitive Ability to use (C1, C2, C3)
Use judged acceptability in context (actual: writing, orally, reading)
Canale and Swain (1980)
Syllabus + test desing for communicative purposes- Grammatical Competence - Sociolinguistic Knowledge (rules of use, context)- Strategic Competence (compensate)
Canale (1983)- Knowledge and Skill(Gramm, Scioling, Strategic, Driscours)
- Actual Communication
Canale (1983) - Knowledge and Skill
-Grammatical Competence-Sociolinguistic Competence-Strategic Competence-Discours Competence
Canale (1983) - Actual Communication
Instances of Language Use (performance): the realization of such knowledge and skill under limiting psychological and environmental conditions
Communication Always involves
Bachman & Palmer (1996, 2010)
- Framework of Language Ability- 2 Broad Areas: Language Know. + Metacognitive Strat.
- (Grammatical, Textual)
- (Illocutionary, Sociolinguistic)"
Bachman & Palmer’s (1996, 2010) - 2 Broad Areas
- Areas of Language Knowledge- Areas of Metacognitive Strategy Use
Bachman & Palmer’s (1996, 2010) - Language Knowledge (Area 1)
- Oranizational Knowledge- Textual Knowledge- Pragmatic Knowedge (Functional Knw. + Sociolinguistic Knw.)
Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Organizational knw.
Voc, syntax, etc.
Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Textual knowledge
Rhetorical or Converstional Organization
Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Pragmatic Knw.
- Functional knw.- Sociolinguistic knw.- How utterances or sentences are related to the communicative goals of the language user and to the features of the language use setting
Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Pragmatic Knw. - Functional knw.
"ideational, manipulative, heuristic, imaginative functions"
Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Pragmatic Knw. - Sociolinguistic Knw.
"Genres, dialects/ varieties, registers, natural or idiomatic expressions, cultural references and figures of speech"
Bachman & Palmer’s (1996, 2010) - Metacognitive Strategy Use (Area 2)
- Goal Setting (deciding what one is going to do)- Appraising (taking stock of what is needed, what one has to work with, and how well one has done)- Planning (deciding how to use what one has)
MELS (communicative focus)
Focus on use of Language
Reinvest understanding of texts means
Show that they understand what they read
Doesn't Exist in MELS- Ability
An Activity, the completion of which, requires the use of language.