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Flashcards in Testing - W02 Deck (28):
1

Ultimate Goal (teaching, testing, learning)

Communicative Competence

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Native Speaker's Language Knowledge

Communicative Competence

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Lado's Model of Language Proficiency

Language as a system of communication

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Language as a a system of communication (comprises)

- Phonemes (smallest)
- Morphemes
- Phrases
- Clauses
- Sentences

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Communicative Competence (History)

- Lado's language proficiency
- Hymes (1972)
- Canale and Swain (1980)
- Canale (1983)
- Bachman (1990)
- Bachman and Palmer (1996, 2010) - most complete

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Hymes (1972)

- Human ability to use language social function
(possible, feasible, appropriate)
- Non Linguistic Elements
- Language Knowledge
(competence - grammar+use vs.)
- Performance

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Knowledge is

Underlying

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Competence

Cognitive Ability to use (C1, C2, C3)

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Performance

Use judged acceptability in context (actual: writing, orally, reading)

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Canale and Swain (1980)

Syllabus + test desing for communicative purposes
- Grammatical Competence 
- Sociolinguistic Knowledge (rules of use, context)
- Strategic Competence (compensate)

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Canale (1983)

Canale (1983)
- Knowledge and Skill
(Gramm, Scioling, Strategic, Driscours)

- Actual Communication

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Canale (1983) - Knowledge and Skill

-Grammatical Competence
-Sociolinguistic Competence
-Strategic Competence
-Discours Competence

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Canale (1983) - Actual Communication

Instances of Language Use (performance): the realization of such knowledge and skill under limiting psychological and environmental conditions

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Communication Always involves

Participation

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Bachman & Palmer (1996, 2010)

- Framework of Language Ability
- 2 Broad Areas: Language Know. + Metacognitive Strat.

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Bachman (1990)

"
Communicative Competence

Organizational Competence
 - (Grammatical, Textual)

Pragmatic Competence
 - (Illocutionary, Sociolinguistic)
"

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Bachman & Palmer’s (1996, 2010) - 2 Broad Areas

- Areas of Language Knowledge
- Areas of Metacognitive Strategy Use

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Bachman & Palmer’s (1996, 2010) - Language Knowledge (Area 1)

- Oranizational Knowledge
- Textual Knowledge
- Pragmatic Knowedge (Functional Knw. + Sociolinguistic Knw.)

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Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Organizational knw.

Voc, syntax, etc.

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Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Textual knowledge

Rhetorical or Converstional Organization

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Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Pragmatic Knw.

- Functional knw.
- Sociolinguistic knw.
- How utterances or sentences are related to the communicative goals of the language user and to the features of the language use setting

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Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Pragmatic Knw. - Functional knw.

"ideational, manipulative, heuristic, imaginative functions"

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Bachman & Palmer - Lang. knw. - Pragmatic Knw. - Sociolinguistic Knw.

"
Genres, dialects/ varieties, registers, natural or idiomatic expressions, cultural references and figures of speech
"

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Bachman & Palmer’s (1996, 2010) - Metacognitive Strategy Use (Area 2)

- Goal Setting (deciding what one is going to do)
- Appraising (taking stock of what is needed, what one has to work with, and how well one has done)
- Planning (deciding how to use what one has)

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MELS (communicative focus)

Focus on use of Language

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Reinvest understanding of texts means

Show that they understand what they read

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Language Skill?

Doesn't Exist in MELS
- Ability

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Task (language)

An Activity, the completion of which, requires the use of language.