What is the purpose of a test?
Tests are used to make decisions.
What do psychometricians do?
analyze psychological data
measure mental traits and processes
theoretical ideas about a group of events related to behavior
intelligence, happiness, honesty
Define norms as it relates to testing.
standards used to compare the scores between test takers
List three traits of a good test.
Define standardization as it relates to testing.
Two-part test development process:
- establishes test norms from test results of large sample
- ensures test is administered and scored uniformly for everyone
Define reliability as it relates to testing.
consistency of results over time
What are the four types of reliability?
equivalent (or alternate) form
scores are consistent on a given test when the same participants are tested on two separate occasions
problematic because of familiarity with test questions
If you take your French test once on Monday and again on Friday, your scores should be similar.
consistency between scores on one half of the test and scores on the other half of the test
The scores on even-numbered questions should correlate with the scores on odd-numbered questions.
equivalent form reliability
two tests with different questions about the same material given to the same participants produce consistent scores
a.k.a. alternative form reliability
Your score on the September SAT should be consistent with your score on the October SAT.
consistency in scores given by different graders
If you pass your road test with one instructor, you should pass the test with any instructor.
Define validity as it relates to testing.
extent to which a test accurately measures what it is supposed to
What are the four types of validity?
content of the test reflects the material it is supposed to, according to the test takers
The AP Psych exam should reflect the material provided in the test outline.
content of the test reflects a wide range of the material it is supposed to, not just a small portion
Research on depression should examine the biological, behavioral, and cognitive aspects.
test scores correlate with other measures of the same material
Scores on the written driving test should correlate with scores on the road test.
test scores accurately predict a future result
High SAT scores should predict high grades in college.
operational defintion of the tested variable agrees with its theoretical construct
The score on an IQ test should reflect one's intelligence.
If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter who scores it.
If a test is __________, someone will earn the same score no matter where, when, or how many times they take the test.
An algebra exam that contains questions about geography lacks __________.
What is the difference between projective tests and inventory tests?
Projective tests, including the Rorschach Inkblot or TAT, allow for interpretation of ambiguous stimuli, while inventory-type tests require answers to standardized questions.
test taker knows how to respond to questions and tries to succeed
can be speed test or power test
IQ tests, SATs, AP exams, road test, classroom tests
What is the difference between a speed test and a power test?
A speed test presents a large number of easy questions in a limited time frame, while a power test presents a varying level of questions and allots more time.
test taker is assessed on specific behavior or performance
test taker describes his or her own beliefs, attitudes, feelings, or physical state
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and other personality tests
examines performance on cognitively demanding tasks, including scholastic performance
includes aptitude and achievement tests
SATs and AP exams
What is the difference between an aptitude test and an achievement test?
An aptitude test, such as the SAT, predicts a person's future performance or his/her capacity to learn
An achievement test, such as the AP Psych exam, assesses what a person has already learned
uses a person's likes and dislikes to predict future life satisfaction
Strong-Cambell Interest Inventory and other career tests
aims to reveal a consistency in behavior over a wide range of situations
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Rorschach Inkblot, and Big Five Factor Inventory
What is the difference between a group test and an individual test?
- given to many people at once by one instructor
- cheaper and more objective
- AP Psych exam is an example
- require interaction between one test taker and the examiner
- expensive and subjective
- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test is an example
What are the purposes of ethical standards in testing?
promote best interest of client
guard against misuse or malpractice
monitor test purpose and use of results
respect client's confidentiality and dignity
What are culture-relevant tests?
test skills and knowledge related to the specific cultural experiences of the test takers
What is the operational definition of intelligence?
an individual's capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment
When is a construct reified?
Reification occurs when a construct, such as intelligence, is treated as if it were a concrete, tangible object.
What was Francis Galton's contribution to intelligence testing?
used psychomotor tasks to determine intelligence
people with high physical ability are more likely to survive, therefore more intelligent
based work off his cousin, Charles Darwin
age at which typical children give same response to test questions
based on Alfred Binet's idea that knowledge becomes more sophisiticated as people get older
The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was developed by __________.
How does the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale measure someone's intelligent quotient (IQ)?
IQ = MA/CA * 100
MA = mental age
CA = chronological age
What are the five ability areas measured both verbally and nonverbally by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale?
What are the three types of Wechsler intelligence scales?
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (W.P.P.S.I.)
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (W.I.S.C.)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (W.A.I.S.)
What are the two types of scores on the Wechsler intelligence scales?
verbal score (vocabulary, comprehension, arithmetic)
performance score (picture arrangement, object assembly, block design)
How do the Wechsler scales determine intelligent quotients (IQ)?
intelligence has a bell curve distribution
how spread out the scores are from mean of 100
What are the most prominant IQ levels on the Wechsler scale?
under 70 = cognitively disabled
80-115 = normal
above 130 = gifted
About 68% of the population falls in the normal range.
When are the Wechsler intelligence scales more appropriate to use than the Stanford-Binet?
Wechsler scales are key in identifying extreme levels of intelligence, including mental retardation and giftedness
The difference between Wechsler's verbal and performance scores is helpful in identifying learning disabilities
An appropriate synonym for "mentally retarded" is __________.
What are the four levels of mental retardation based on IQ scores?
under 20 = Profound
20-34 = Severe
35-49 = Moderate
50-70 = Mild
About 85% of cognitively disabled individuals are considered mild.
Explain the differences between mild, moderate, severe, and profound mental retardation.
mild: self-care, 6th grade education, hold job, live independently, social skills
moderate: self-care, 2nd grade education, menial job, function in group home
severe: limited language, requires care, no social skills
profound: requires complete care
A specific type of deinstitutionalization, known as __________, moved the cognitively disabled out of hospitals and into group or family homes.
statistical procedure that identifies common factors within a group of items by determining which variables are most correlated
How did Charles Spearman contribute to intelligence research?
tested a wide variety of mental tasks on a large number of people
identified underlying variables g and s
What are Spearman's g and s variables?
g = general factor underlying all intelligence
s = less important specialized abilities
Louis Thurstone identified seven distinct intelligence factors, called primary mental abilities.
John Horn and Raymond Cattell divided intelligence into the factors of __________ and __________.
fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence
cognitive abilities that require quick learning and diminish with age
learned knowledge and skills that increase with age, such as vocabulary
an individual, considered mentally retarded, who is exceptionally skilled in a specific area, usually math, art, or music
Who proposed the theory of multiple intelligences?
What is the theory of multiple intelligences?
idea that people process information differently and intelligence is composed of different factors
stemmed from unusual nature of savants
According to Howard Gardner, what are the eight types of intelligence?
What is the significance of emotional intelligence?
ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions
based on Gardner's intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence
term coined by Peter Salovey and John Mayer
later studied by Daniel Goleman
led to Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS)
The triarchic theory of intelligence was proposed by __________.
What is the triarchic theory of intelligence?
Idea that there are three separate and testable intelligences:
- analytical (facts)
- practical (street smarts)
- creative (seeing multiple solutions)
Define creativity as it relates to testing.
ability to generate new, original, and useful ideas and solutions
What is the threshold theory?
idea that certain level of intelligence is necessary, but not sufficient for creativity
Intelligence is 75% attributed to __________ and 25% to __________.
What are examples of evidence supporting the idea that intelligence is hereditary?
mental retardation from genetic defects (Down syndrome)
twin studies (identical twins have higher correlation between IQs than fraternal twins)
IQ scores of adoptees are more similar to biological parents than adopted parents
What are examples of evidence supporting the idea that intelligence is learned?
mental retardation from prenatal exposure to alcohol (Fetal alcohol syndrome)
cultural-familial retardation (from sociocultural deprivation)
school attendance increases IQ scores
Flynn effect (increase in IQ scores over time due to better health care and schooling)
Define heritability as it relates to testing.
proportion of variation among individuals in a population resulting from genetic causes
How does the reaction range model explain intelligence using both nature and nurture influences?
This model states that genetic makeup determines the limits for a person's IQ. The upper limit can be reached when in an ideal environment, just as the lower limit can be displayed when in an impoverished environment.
How do IQ scores of African Americans, Native Americans, and Hispanic Americans compare with white children?
white children typically score 10-15 points higher
range of scores for variables being measured for a group of individuals
difference between means of two groups for a common variable