Name the four components that characterize abnormal behavior.
- maladaptive to situational functioning
- labeled as abnormal in society
- characterized by perceptual or cognitive dysfunction
How many of the four components of abnormal behavior are necessary for a positive diagnosis?
What is psychopathology the study of?
origin, development, and manifestations of mental or behavioral disorders
Why is the word “insanity” not used in psychology?
Insanity is a legal, rather than a medical description
In the medical model of abnormal behavior, what is defined as the apparent cause and development of an illness?
probable course of an illness
According to the psychoanalytic perspective, interactions among the __________, __________, and __________ are responsible for abnormal behavior.
id; ego; superego
Which psychological perspective contends that abnormal behavior results from internal conflict in the unconscious?
Which theoretical perspective claims that abnormal behavior results from people being too sensitive to criticisms and judgments?
Which psychopathological approach aims to correct abnormal behavior by changing the faulty or illogical thoughts that characterize it?
True or false:
The behavioral approach believes that abnormal behavior has at some point been rewarded or reinforced.
According to the __________ perspective, chemical or structural abnormalities are responsible for the manifestation of abnormal behavior.
The sociocultural perspective emphasizes __________ and __________ in defining the parameters of acceptable behavior.
This perspective believes that abnormal behavior occurs when psychological mechanisms do not effectively perform their naturally selected functions?
Although each of the psychopathological perspectives has different views on the etiology of abnormal behavior, they all agree that disorders have multiple causes.
Name the three classes of causes.
- predisposing causes
- precipitating causes
- maintaining causes
What is a predisposing cause?
environmental or genetic influence that exists before the onset of the disorder; increases vulnerability to the disorder
What is the name for an event that triggers the onset of a disorder?
What is a maintaining cause?
factor that makes the disorder more likely to continue
What is the purpose of the DSM-IV-TR?
to identify and classify psychological disorders using diagnostic criteria
How many axes are used in order to obtain a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis?
Which of the following disorders would be found on Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR:
- histrionic personality disorder
- mental retardation
Major disorders are found on Axis I, while personality disorders and mental retardation are found on Axis II.
What two classes of disorders are found on Axis II of the DSM-IV-TR?
- personality disorders
- mental retardation
Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR assesses the patient’s general health?
Which axis of the DSM-IV-TR is used to assess the effects of a patient’s divorce or job loss, for example?
Axis IV assesses the personal level of psychosocial and environmental stress.
What does Axis V of the DSM-IV-TR assess?
general level of functioning
True or false:
It is possible to have a diagnosis on both Axes I and II of the DSM-IV-TR.
Name three shortcomings of the DSM-IV-TR.
- The DSM-IV-TR is just a guide; cannot describe every symptom and diagnosis
- It is overly reliant on the medical aspects of understanding disordered behavior
- It is quick to use labels, which can lead to stigmas
What two overwhelming features characterize anxiety disorders?
Feelings of dread and worry, along with constant autonomic nervous system arousal, characterize which disorder?
generalized anxiety disorder
What factors characterize panic disorders?
- recurring panic attacks
- constant worry of another panic attack occurring
What is the difference between generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder?
Panic disorder has acute symptoms, whereas generalized anxiety disorder has less intense symptoms for a longer period of time.
People who have been exposed to high levels of violence, such as soldiers in war, are susceptible to which anxiety disorder, characterized by recurring thoughts and anxiety linked to that trauma?
post-traumatic stress disorder
If a patient presented with involuntary, persistent thoughts that were quelled only through repetitive behaviors that alleviated such thoughts, which anxiety disorder would she have?
In order for a fear of common events or objects to be considered a phobia, it must be both __________ and __________.
Fear of public speaking is considered what type of phobia?
What does a person with agoraphobia fear?
public places and/or open spaces
According to the behavioral perspective, anxiety responses are acquired through __________ conditioning, and maintained through __________ conditioning.
Which perspective attributes anxiety disorders to misinterpretation of harmless situations as threatening?
Neurotransmitter imbalances, according to what perspective, are at least partially responsible for anxiety?
The evolutionary perspective attributes the presence of anxiety to __________.
Which psychological disorder is characterized by physical symptoms without root in actual physical causes?
Name two well-known somatoform disorders.
- conversion disorders
A person who frequently imagines symptoms of serious diseases and seeks treatment is classified as a __________.
What is a diagnostic hallmark of conversion disorder?
symptoms that are real to the patient but have no apparent medical cause
According to the psychoanalytic perspective, what is responsible for the manifestation of a somatoform disorder?
bottled-up emotional energy that is transformed into physical symptoms
Somatoform disorders, according to the __________ perspective, materialize because the individual aims to avoid some unpleasant or threatening situation, provide an explanation or justification for failure, or attract concern, sympathy, and care.
According to behaviorists, operant responses that result in the manifestation of somatoform disorders are learned and maintained because they result in __________.
What do social theorists believe is the cause for somatoform disorders?
too much focus on internal physiological experiences, amplifying bodily sensations, and forming disastrous conclusions about minor complaints
What characterizes a mood disorder?
extreme disturbances of emotional balance
How many major types of mood disorders are there and what are they?
There are two major types of mood disorders: major depression and bipolar disorder.
Major depression must last two or more weeks and be associated with both situational and biological factors. Apart from these, this disorder is characterized by five other factors.
- depressed mood
- general lack of interest in once enjoyable activities
- low sense of self-worth
- low energy
- possible suicidal ideation
Symptoms of dysthymic disorder are similar to, though less severe than, ___________. How long must a patient experience symptoms before being diagnosed with dysthymic disorder?
major depression; two years
Describe the most common clinical form of bipolar disorder.
The most common form exhibits severe depression (akin to major depression) with infrequent manic episodes that are characterized by extreme talkativeness, increased self-esteem, excessive pleasure-seeking, and lack of sleep.
Because of the short daylight hours, winter is often implicated in which mood disorder?
seasonal affective disorder
Aaron Beck proposed the idea of the cognitive triad. What is it?
the combination of negative thoughts surrounding the self, the future, and the world that cause a patient’s depression.
How could Seligman’s research on learned helplessness translate to human depression?
If people are taught from a young age that they have no control over a situation, they may cope through depression, rather than trying to change a negative situation.
Not all _______ are a sign of mental illness. For example, if you have a migraine and see spots in your field of vision, you understand they are not there.
What is a delusion of persecution?
the unfounded belief that you are being or will be harmed
If a patient believes he is supernaturally powerful, wealthy, or famous, what may he be suffering from?
delusions of grandeur
What are three common features of schizophrenic disorders?
- disturbed or innapropriate emotional responses to environmental stimuli
List the five types of schizophrenia.
Which subset of schizophrenia is characterized by auditory hallucinations and feelings of persecution?
What two factors characterize disorganized schizophrenia?
- incoherent speech
- inappropriate or flat emotional affect
What two factors mark the presence of catatonic schizophrenia?
- rigid body postures for extended periods of time
Many catatonic schizophrenics exhibit what bodily condition?
This is a condition in which the body can be moved into new positions and will stay there instead of going limp.
If a patient exhibits signs of psychosis but additional symptoms do not fit the description of other forms of schizophrenia, what type of schizophrenia may be occurring?
What is the dopamine hypothesis?
a theory about the onset of Schizophrenia
antipsychotic drugs, which are dopamine antagonists, reduce schizophrenic symptoms;
when patients with Parkinson’s disease are treated with excessive L-dopa, a dopamine agonist, schizophrenia-like thoughts can occur.
What muscle disorder can result from overuse of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia?
Tardive dyskinesia, which causes tremors and muscle spasms, may occur.
How does the diathesis-stress model help explain why one identical twin may suffer from a mental disorder but the other may not?
This model marries the idea of genetic predisposition to certain conditions (either mental or environmental) that may trigger disorders.
Differing environment and stressors may be the reason that two people with the same DNA (like identical twins) may not suffer from the same disorders.
What is an organic disorder? Give an example.
An organic disorder is caused by damage to brain tissue, resulting most often from diseases or chemicals.
Examples: dementia and Alzheimer’s disease
A disorder characterized by the pervasive expression of extreme, abnormal personality constructs that interfere with normal social functioning.
__________ personality disorder is characterized by extreme distrust and suspicion of others.
Which personality disorder is characterized by a blatant disregard for the rights or interests of others?
antisocial personality disorder
What two factors define narcissistic personality disorder?
- the need for others to focus on oneself
If a patient exhibited excessive emotional reactions to normal, every-day stimuli, and was preoccupied with the constant need for attention, what personality disorder would you most likely diagnose?
histrionic personality disorder
What is the defining characteristic of dependent personality disorder?
the need to be cared for
Which is more severe: obsessive-compulsive disorder or obsessive-compulsive personality disorder?
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is more severe. People with obsessive-compulsive personality disorder may have similar thoughts and behaviors as patients with OCD, but are not as crippled by them.
What are the three clusters of personality disorders, as delineated in the DSM-IV-TR?
- dramatic/emotionally problematic
- chronic fearfulness/avoidant
Dissociative disorders are characterized either by a __________ of memory or a(n) __________ sense of identity.
What are the two main types of amnesia?
What is the difference between retrograde and anterograde amnesia?
In retrograde amnesia, one loses memories that occurred before the traumatic event; in anterograde amnesia, one loses memories occurring after the traumatic event.
When someone is unable to remember things, but there is no physiological basis for the memory disruption, he is said to be afflicted with what kind of amnesia?
In a fugue state, one first experiences a sudden and complete loss of identity. What happens after this loss?
The sufferer will assume a new identity
__________ is characterized by the appearance of __________ or more distinct identities in one individual. The identities may or may not be aware of each other, and the personality manifested may be dependent on environmental or social context.
Dissociative identity disorder; two
Which psychological perspective is skeptical about Dissociative Identity Disorder, claiming that sufferers are “role-playing”?
There are many symptoms that characterize ADHD; name five.
- difficulty paying attention
- trouble listening
- difficulties in organization
What four factors define autism spectrum disorder?
- deficits in social interactions
- impairment in communication
- restrictive and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities
- appearance of abnormal functioning by age three
What is the difference between autism and asperger’s?
Asperger’s is characterized by less severe versions of the symptoms found in autism.
What are some common examples of paraphilia?
- zoophilia is sexual attraction to animals
- pedophilia is sexual attraction to children
- fetishism is sexual arousal stemming from objects or situations
Paraphilia (or psychosexual disorder) is marked by the sexualization of objects, people, or activities that are not generally considered sexual.
What are the two most commonly mentioned eating disorders listed in the DSM?
- anorexia nervosa