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Flashcards in History and Approaches Deck (64)
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1
Define:

Psychology

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

2

Define behavior as it relates to psychology.

observable actions

3

__________ are defined as internal experiences, including feelings and thoughts.

Mental processes

4

Why is psychology a scientific study?

  • uses empirical data to disprove hypotheses
  • describes, predicts, and explains behavior and mental processes
  • systematic collection and observation of data

5

An example of the nature vs. nurture controversy is whether intelligence is __________ or derives from __________.

inherited; experience

6

Define dualism as it relates to psychology.

idea that the mind and body are separate entities that interact

When you think of Dualism you should think of Descartes, who said “I think therefore I am” (Cogito ergo sum).

7

What is monism?

the idea that the brain and the mind are the same thing, and that every mental state is reducible to an identical brain state

8

Plato and Descartes, believers in dualism, are on the side of __________ in the nature vs. nurture controversy.

nature

Descartes believed knowledge was innate and the pineal gland was considered the mind.

9

Which side in the nature vs. nurture controversy are Aristotle and Locke, believers in monism, on?

nurture

Locke's "tabula rasa" translates to "blank slate" suggesting that knowledge is learned through experience. 

10

Psychology grew out of which discipline(s) in Ancient Greece?

philosophy, physiology, and biology

11

Who is credited with the foundation of scientific psychology?

Wilhelm Wundt, who performed the earliest studies in 1879 in Germany, is considered the father of the discipline of psychology. He created the first lab dedicated to psychological research, and wanted to measure consciousness.

12

__________ examines the structure of the mind and basic elements of consciousness. Proponents of this system felt that consciousness should be the data of psychology and the best way to research was by using individuals who were trained in introspection.

Structuralism

13
Define:

Introspection

 Introspection is the process whereby observers look inward and objectively analyze their sensory experience.

14

Name the first president of the American Psychological Association (APA).

G. Stanley Hall

15

Who was Edward Titchener?

Titchener, a researcher at Cornell University, was one of the earliest structuralists. He felt that psychology should study the structure of consciousness, and that meant studying sensations, images, and affections (emotions).

16

__________ was the first woman to receive her Ph.D. in psychology.

Margaret Floy Washburn

17

Define functionalism as it relates to psychology.

Functionalism was the school of thought that was a reaction to structuralism. Functionalism studies how the mind adapts to its environment. Functionalism was interested in individual differences, whereas structuralism was interested in groups of people.

18

Who was Mary Whiton Calkins?

first female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)

19

Name three of the earliest functionalists.

  1. William James
  2. James Cattell
  3. John Dewey

20

How did William James contribute to functionalism?

James published psychology's first textbook, called The Principles of Psychology, from a functionalist perspective.

21
Which psychological approach does this statement reflect?

Behavior results from learning through experience.

behavioral

22

What is behavior modification?

set of techniques to help individuals unlearn habits that have led to psychological problems

23

Describe Ivan Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments.

Pavlov, an early behaviorist, in his famous classical conditioning experiment, trained dogs to salivate in response to the sound of a bell.

24

What did John Watson believe psychology should study?

Watson, one of the earliest behaviorists, felt psychology should be the science of overt behavior and reject the study of mental processes.

25

Who is the psychologist behind operant conditioning of rats and pigeons?

B.F. Skinner

26
Define:

operant conditioning

training organisms to repeat responses that lead to rewards and not to repeat responses that lead to punishment

27

What is the key premise in Gestalt psychology?

Gestalt psychology stresses that the whole process should be studied, rather than specific parts.

  • Gestalt psychology was a reaction to structuralism
  • While structuralism seeks to study the elements that make up consciousness, Gestalt psychology stresses the idea that the “whole is greater than the sum of its parts"

28

Max Wertheimer was a _____ psychologist.

Gestalt

29

What are the ABCs of behavior according to the behavioral approach?

  • antecedent environmental conditions
  • behavioral actions
  • consequences of behavior

30

Where do behavioral geneticists believe behavior comes from?

particular behaviors are attributed to genetically-based psychological characteristics