In order for one’s “general style of dealing with others and the environment” to be considered their “personality,” what must it be?
What are the four broad theories of personality?
- trait theories
Who is credited as being the “leader” of the psychoanalytic school of thought?
What is psychodynamic theory?
a psychological approach based on a marriage of Freudian concepts (i.e. the subconscious) with more modern ideas
According to Freud, what two parts could the mind be divided into?
- the conscious
- the subconscious
Freud referred to mental energy as __________.
Although Freud contended that the subconscious plays a major role in behavior, its contents are not accessible. They become accessible through __________ or revealing the __________ of dreams.
freudian slips; latent content
This level, just below the level of conscious awareness, contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that are easily recalled.
According to Freud, what two factors lie within the subconscious?
- source of one’s problems
What is free association?
the patient reports whatever comes to mind, while the therapist analyzes the responses and looks for themes that may reveal the subconscious
Freud believed in dream analysis; he composed a list of __________, items or events that appeared in dreams but in reality represent other items or events in the subconscious.
What three distinct components comprise the mind, according to Freud?
Name two things that the id is the ‘source’ of?
- mental energy
On which principle does the id operate?
the pleasure principle
The pleasure principle is the desire to __________ while __________.
maximize pleasure; minimizing pain
The superego, the acknowledged opposite of the __________, is an internal representation of society’s rules, morals, and obligations.
Name two things that the ego allows us to accomplish in everyday life?
- functioning in the environment
- acting logically
On which principle does the ego operate?
the reality principle
What is the reality principle?
the set of desires that can be satisfied only if the means to satisfy them exists and is available
What kind of thought is the ego most involved in?
What two things does the ego attempt to balance?
- the interaction with the environment
- the opposing forces of the id and superego
According to Freud, we use defense mechanisms to deal with what?
anxiety produced by the id-superego conflict
Repression, a type of defense mechanism, describes the process by which anxiety-provoking memories or desires are moved to the __________.
If, after an argument, a child shows anger not towards his friend, with whom he is angry, but to a stuffed animal, what defense mechanism is he exhibiting?
In __________, the ego completely reverses a desire to make it safer or more socially acceptable.
If I make up for a failure to understand math by excelling in critical reading, what defense mechanism am I exhibiting?
What defense mechanism uses logic to excuse emotional or irrational behavior?
Regression involves reverting to what kind of behaviors?
What is denial?
refusal to acknowledge or accept unwanted beliefs or actions
Which defense mechanism involves the channelling or redirecting of sexual or aggressive feelings into a more socially acceptable outlet?
What describes man’s inherent envy towards woman’s ability to nurture and sustain life?
What are the five stages of psychoanalytic development?
- oral stage
- anal stage
- phallic stage
- latency period
- genital stage
In Karen Horney’s theory of personality, what is important in forming the basis of the adult personality?
interactions between the child and the parent as the child deals with basic anxiety
What characterizes basic anxiety, a main tenet in Karen Horney’s theory of personality?
the feeling of being alone in an unfamiliar or hostile world
Carl Jung’s theory of personality is based on the idea that the mind comprises pairs of __________.
What, according to Carl Jung’s theory, is the persona?
the mask that each person presents to the outside world
Carl Jung would describe the deep, passionate, inner person as that person’s __________.
According to Jung, each person contains a female and a male side to our personality, or an __________ and __________.
According to Jung’s theory, what is the purpose of the self?
to balance the opposing forces and the desires of the mind
What are the two divisions of unconsciousness in Jung’s theory?
- personal unconsciousness
- collective unconscious
What comprises the personal unconsciousness?
repressed memories and clusters of thought
What can be found in the collective unconscious?
behavior and memory common to all humans and passed down from our ancient and common ancestors
Archetypes, found in the collective unconscious, are characterized as what?
the behaviors and memories in the collective unconscious
Alfred Adler’s theory of personality speculated that children develop feelings of __________ due to their size and level of competence, and they spend the rest of their lives trying to overcome it.
According to Adler, the best way to overcome inferiority is through development of __________; failure to do so could result in the development of a(n) __________.
social interest; inferiority complex
What do the humanistic theories of personality emphasize?
the uniqueness and richness of being human
What two aspects do the humanistic theories focus on?
- subjective reality
- subjective mental events
According to the humanist perspective, what is the ultimate purpose for existence?
What characterizes self-actualization?
creatively becoming the person you are capable of being
Name two humanistic theorists.
- Abraham Maslow
- Carl Rogers
What is the self-concept?
the mental representation of who we feel we truly are
According to humanist theory, when do internal conflicts arise?
when we experience incongruence between our self-concept and our actual thoughts and behaviors
According to Rogers, __________ distort our self-concept
conditions of worth
What are conditions of worth, according to Rogers?
other people’s evaluations of our worth
In Rogerian theory, __________ is meant to combat the conditions of worth that are often imposed and can lead to unhealthy self-concepts.
unconditional positive regard
What do social-cognitive theories assume about personality?
that cognitive constructs are the basis of the personality
In social-cognitive theory, how are constructs developed and modified?
through learning in social environments
Albert Bandura focused on the idea of __________ as central to personality.
What does self-efficacy encompass?
one’s beliefs about his/her own abilities in a given situation
Which social-cognitive theory of personality, proposed by Julian Rotter, believes that effort has a major role in personality?
locus of control theory
What is the difference between people who have an internal locus of control and those who have an external locus of control?
Those with an internal locus of control believe that successes or failures are a direct result of their efforts; those with an external locus of control are more likely to attribute successes or failures to luck or chance.
According to trait theorists, traits are largely __________ rather than acquired through experience.
What are the big five personality traits?
This statistical measure allows researchers to use correlations between traits to see which traits cluster together as factors.
a measure of the amount of variation in a trait in a certain population that is due to genetics
What are two methods of trait research analysis?
- nomothetic analysis
- idiographic analysis
What is the main difference between nomothetic and idiographic traits?
Nomothetic traits are thought to be universal (i.e. the big five), while idiographic traits are unique to the individual.
According to Gordon Allport, what are the three types of traits?
According to Allport, a trait that overrides one’s whole being is a __________, while __________ are the person’s primary characteristics, and traits that constitute interests are __________.
cardinal trait; central traits; secondary
The theory that we try to make sense of the world by generating, testing, and revising hypotheses about our social reality, was developed by George Kelly. It is known as what?
personal construct theory
Which theorist is known for recognizing that traits often vary depending on circumstances?
According to the cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) developed by Walter Mischel, interaction among five factors and characteristics of the situation account for individual behavior differences across situations. What are these five factors?
- encoding strategies
- expectancies and beliefs
- goals and values
- personal competencies and self-regulatory processes
What are behavioral signatures?
consistent ways of responding in similar situations that characterize our personality
Hans Eysenck used factor analysis to identify common behavioral traits along three dimensions. What are they?
Raymond Cattel believed that __________, the person’s underlying characteristics, were the basis of personality and gave rise to __________.
source traits; surface traits
What is one main problem with Freud’s psychoanalytic theory?
theory was not developed through empirical testing
What is one problem with the humanistic theory?
lacks empirical evidence and has an overly optimistic outlook on life
What is one problem with the cognitive theory?
does not account for the breadth of humanness
What is one problem with trait theories?
unable to explain the origin of personality
Typically, what does psychoanalytic assessment involve?
a one-on-one therapist and patient relationship, in which the therapist uses techniques (such as free association and dream recall) to gain access to the unconscious
What makes it difficult to assess someone on a humanistic level?
The personal nature of the self makes it impossible for a test or assessment tool to measure the levels at which someone is being true to his “real” self.
Name three assessment tools used by trait theorists.
- Eysenck Personality Inventory
- 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire
- MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
What is the Hawthorne Effect?
a flaw in naturalistic observational studies; when people know that they are being observed, they change their behavior to what they think the observer expects, or to present themselves well
What is the difference between self-concept and self-esteem?
Self-concept refers to how we view ourselves; self-esteem refers to how much we value ourselves
What are the two parts of self-understanding?
What four components characterize the “me” of self-understanding?
- physical self
- active self
- social self
- psychological self
What two factors comprise the physical self in self-understanding?
Under what sector of “me”, in self-understanding, would one find behaviors?
the active self
What does the social self, found in the “me” of self-understanding, descibe?
how we interact with others
What sector of the “me” in self-understanding is comprised of our feelings and personalities?
the psychological self
What is the role of the “I” in self-understanding, and what is it responsible for?
The “I” is the self-knower, and is responsible for the coordination and interpretation of the four parts of the “me.”
What allows us to reflect on ourselves and have a self-concept?
the “I” in self-understanding
What is the halo effect?
the error by which we generalize a high self-evaluation from one domain to another
What are the eleven domains of competency within which we evaluate ourselves?
- sense of humor
- job competence
- adequacy as a provider
- physical appearance
- household management
What are two side effects of low self-esteem?
- reluctance to try new tasks
- reluctance to persist at tasks already started
If I were to take pride in the accomplishments of an individual with whom I strongly affiliate, what theory would I be engaging in?
basking in reflective glory
What is the early-appearing set of individual differences in reaction and regulation?
William Sheldon’s somatotype theory claims that certain personality traits are associated with each of three body types. What are they?
- endodorph (fat)
- mesomorph (muscular)
- ectomorph (thin)
The theory of triadic reciprocality, proposed by Al Bandura, is based off of what idea?
that each factor of personality (traits, environment, behavior) influences the others in a constant and loop-like fashion
Used primarily by psychoanalysts, __________ present ambiguous stimuli (i.e. inkblots) with the assumption that test takers will project their unconscious thoughts onto the stimuli.
projective personality tests
What three factors must be present in order for a trait to be considered part of temperament?
Mary Rothbart assessed temperament on three scales: __________, __________, and__________.
- negative affect
- effortful control
Andrew is a straight-A student who needs to be in charge of all his group projects and gets angry at his group members when they aren’t chipping in. Ike is more go-with-the-flow and isn’t easily angered. Which has the type A personality and which has the type B personality?
Andrew has the type A personality
Ike has the type B personality
What are the defining characteristics of stage theories?
Stage theories believe people develop in stages, or steps, in the same order, and one stage can be distinguished from all other stages.
What are the stages of Freud’s psychosexual stage theory?
- oral stage (birth to one year)
- anal stage (one to three years)
- phallic stage (three to five years)
- latency stage (six years to puberty)
- genital stage (puberty onward)
For more information, see the Developmental Psychology cards.
What assessment technique attempts to ensure consistency in test results?
What does validity measure?
accuracy; assesses whether or not the test measures what it is supposed to measure
What research effect observes that individuals will claim general descriptions of their personality (that can apply to a wide range of people) are highly accurate?