In order for one's "general style of dealing with others and the environment" to be considered their "personality," what must it be?
What are the four broad theories of personality?
Who is credited as being the "leader" of the psychoanalytic school of thought?
What is psychodynamic theory?
a psychological approach based on a marriage of Freudian concepts (i.e. the subconscious) with more modern ideas
According to Freud, what two parts could the mind be divided into?
Freud referred to mental energy as __________.
Although Freud contended that the subconscious plays a major role in behavior, its contents are not accessible. They become accessible through __________ or revealing the __________ of dreams.
freudian slips; latent content
This level, just below the level of conscious awareness, contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that are easily recalled.
According to Freud, what two factors lie within the subconscious?
source of one's problems
What is free association?
the patient reports whatever comes to mind, while the therapist analyzes the responses and looks for themes that may reveal the subconscious
Freud believed in dream analysis; he composed a list of __________, items or events that appeared in dreams but in reality represent other items or events in the subconscious.
What three distinct components comprise the mind, according to Freud?
Name two things that the id is the 'source' of?
On which principle does the id operate?
the pleasure principle
The pleasure principle is the desire to __________ while __________.
maximize pleasure; minimizing pain
The superego, the acknowledged opposite of the __________, is an internal representation of society's rules, morals, and obligations.
Name two things that the ego allows us to accomplish in everyday life?
functioning in the environment
On which principle does the ego operate?
the reality principle
What is the reality principle?
the set of desires that can be satisfied only if the means to satisfy them exists and is available
What kind of thought is the ego most involved in?
What two things does the ego attempt to balance?
the interaction with the environment
the opposing forces of the id and superego
According to Freud, we use defense mechanisms to deal with what?
anxiety produced by the id-superego conflict
Repression, a type of defense mechanism, describes the process by which anxiety-provoking memories or desires are moved to the __________.
If, after an argument, a child shows anger not towards his friend, with whom he is angry, but to a stuffed animal, what defense mechanism is he exhibiting?
In __________, the ego completely reverses a desire to make it safer or more socially acceptable.
If I make up for a failure to understand math by excelling in critical reading, what defense mechanism am I exhibiting?
What defense mechanism uses logic to excuse emotional or irrational behavior?
Regression involves reverting to what kind of behaviors?
What is denial?
refusal to acknowledge or accept unwanted beliefs or actions
Which defense mechanism involves the channelling or redirecting of sexual or aggressive feelings into a more socially acceptable outlet?