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Flashcards in Personality Deck (108)
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1

In order for one's "general style of dealing with others and the environment" to be considered their "personality," what must it be?

 
 

enduring

 
 

2

What are the four broad theories of personality?

 

  1. psychoanalytic
  2. humanistic
  3. social-cognitive
  4. trait theories 
 

3

Who is credited as being the "leader" of the psychoanalytic school of thought? 

 

Sigmund Freud

 

4

What is psychodynamic theory? 

 
 
 

a psychological approach based on a marriage of Freudian concepts (i.e. the subconscious) with more modern ideas

 
 
 

5

According to Freud, what two parts could the mind be divided into?

 

  1. the conscious
  2. the subconscious
 

6

Freud referred to mental energy as __________.

 
 

libido

 
 

7

Although Freud contended that the subconscious plays a major role in behavior, its contents are not accessible. They become accessible through __________ or  revealing the __________ of dreams. 

 
 

freudian slips; latent content

 
 

8

This level, just below the level of conscious awareness, contains thoughts, memories, feelings, and images that are easily recalled.

 

 
 
 

preconscious

 
 
 

9

According to Freud, what two factors lie within the subconscious? 

 
 

  1. motivations
  2. source of one's problems
 
 

10

What is free association?

 
 

the patient reports whatever comes to mind, while the therapist analyzes the responses and looks for themes that may reveal the subconscious

 
 

11

Freud believed in dream analysis; he composed a list of __________, items or events that appeared in dreams but in reality represent other items or events in the subconscious. 

 
 

Freudian symbols 

 
 

12

What three distinct components comprise the mind, according to Freud?

 

  1. id
  2. ego
  3. superego
 

13

Name two things that the id is the 'source' of?

 

  1. mental energy 
  2. drive 
 

14

On which principle does the id operate? 

 

the pleasure principle

 

15

The pleasure principle is the desire to __________ while __________. 

 
 

maximize pleasure; minimizing pain 

 
 

16

The superego, the acknowledged opposite of the __________, is an internal representation of society's rules, morals, and obligations.

 
 

id 

 
 

17

Name two things that the ego allows us to accomplish in everyday life? 

 
 
 

  1. functioning in the environment
  2. acting logically
 
 
 

18

On which principle does the ego operate?

 

the reality principle

 
 
 

19

What is the reality principle?

 

the set of desires that can be satisfied only if the means to satisfy them exists and is available

 

20

What kind of thought is the ego most involved in?

 

conscious thought

 

21

What two things does the ego attempt to balance? 

 

  1. the interaction with the environment 
  2. the opposing forces of the id and superego
 

22

According to Freud, we use defense mechanisms to deal with what? 

 
 
 
 

 anxiety produced by the id-superego conflict

 
 
 
 

23

Repression, a type of defense mechanism, describes the process by which anxiety-provoking memories or desires are moved to the __________.

 
 

subconscious

 
 

24

If, after an argument, a child shows anger not towards his friend, with whom he is angry, but to a stuffed animal, what defense mechanism is he exhibiting?

 
 

displacement

 
 

25

In __________, the ego completely reverses a desire to make it safer or more socially acceptable. 

 
 

reaction formation

 
 

26

If I make up for a failure to understand math by excelling in critical reading, what defense mechanism am I exhibiting?

 

compensation

 

27

What defense mechanism uses logic to excuse emotional or irrational behavior? 

 

rationalization

 

28

Regression involves reverting to what kind of behaviors? 

 

childish behaviors

 

29

What is denial? 

 
 
 

 refusal to acknowledge or accept unwanted beliefs or actions

 
 
 

30

Which defense mechanism involves the channelling or redirecting of sexual or aggressive feelings into a more socially acceptable outlet?

 
 

sublimation