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Flashcards in The Middle Ages Terms Deck (71):
1

A religious institution under the dictatorship of a superior or head of a monastery; a convent

Abbey

2

An increase of size or extent by natural growth or by gradual external addition

Accretion

3

From the Latin word "to walk"; a covered walkway or aisle outdoors or indoors, especially the passageway around the apse and choir of a church

Ambulatory

4

The circular or multi-angular recess or termination of a church sanctuary; usually the east end of a chapel

Apse

5

A carved wood or stone placed figure; often in a form of a Heraldic Beast

Beeste

6

A nautical post which mooring ropes are fastened; (or) any short vertical post of stone, metal, or wood used to inhibit vehicular passage while allowing free movement of pedestrians

Bollard

7

Italian word for a bell tower; usually detached from the main building or church

Campanile (Italian word for bell - campana)

8

The part of a church near the altar, often at the east end and set apart by a rail, which is for the use of the clergy and the choir

Chancel

9

A rectangular courtyard surrounded by an open arcade; also, the covered passageways around an open space or garth; south of the nave to maximize sunlight

Cloister

10

A small column

Colonnette

11

The social, political, and economic system in medieval Europe

Feudalism

12

Under the feudal system; land held from a lord in return for service

Fief

13

The archaic word for "fountain"; usually of stone; a receptacle for holy water used in baptism

Font

14

Pertaining to the armorial bearings such as coat of arms and other symbols of genealogy, emblazoned on armor, banners, and other objects of adornment or public display

Heraldry

15

The house or hut wherein dwells a hermit; secluded retreat away from people

Hermitage

16

The innermost part of a castle; often the living quarters in a tower surrounded by wall

Keep

17

A type of piazza; a rectangular space with a structure protruding into one edge; forming a "dogleg" or two-armed public area

L-shaped Piazza

18

The Italian word for a covered gallery or portico with an open arcade or colonnade on at least one side

Loggia

19

A small loggia

Loggetta

20

A large house as the main residence of an estate; (or) in feudal England, the district or land over which the lord had authority; partially divided among his peasants in return for rent or crop sharing

Manor

21

Interconnecting passages carved in the stone floor of a Medieval church; popular in large public and private gardens in England and Europe from the middle ages to the 9th century

Maze

22

A trench, usually filled with water around a fortified structure or position

Moat

23

A place of residence occupied by monks who have retired from the world under religious vows

Monastery

24

Obscure thought or speculation; occult; transintellectual and intuitive; belief that a human's chief end lies in seeking an intimate union of the soul with the Divinity, nature, or the world soul, achieved through contemplation

Mysticism

25

The part of a church between the entrance and the choir flanked by piers or columns that separate it from the aisles

Nave

26

Planning jargon for resultant built forms derived from a response to localized conditions of the topography and the growth by accretion

Organic

27

A person of the eastern tribe of the barbarians, which kept a monarchy in Italy between A.D. 493 - A.D. 555

Ostragoth

28

The portion of a wall above the roof gutter, sometimes battlemented; also applied to the same feature, rising breast high, on balconies or bridges

Parapet

29

From the Latin word paradisus, "an enclosed garden"; an enclosed court in front of a church, sometimes including a garden

Parvis

30

An Italian name for a public open square in an urban area; (or) a roofed walkway along the side of a building

Piazza (Spanish - Plaza)

31

An Italian urban space that has no streets extending directly through the space; the sight line of each street entering the space is terminated in it

Pinwheel Piazza

32

Rectangular plant beds, typically in the medieval garden; with wooden plans used to retain the mounds of soil; its purpose is to obtain better drainage; to maintain the beds without excessive stooping

Raised beds

33

Style of architecture based on Roman architecture prevalent in the Western Europe during the ninth and twelfth centuries

Romanesque

34

A person in feudal servitude, bound to the master's land and transferred with the land from owner to owner

Serf

35

Part of a cruciform church at right angles to the nave and chancel; the north and south arms

Transept

36

A person of the Germanic tribe that ravaged Gaul (France) and Spain, thus, sacked Rome; disregarded the beautiful artworks created by the Romans

Vandal

37

A Teutonic person of the western group of a Germanic trine of Central Europe; invaded the Roman Empire in the late fourth century A.D.; established own kingdom in France and Spain

Visigoth

38

The primitive technique of wall building; reeds were woven together and covered with mud or plaster which then dries and becomes hard; held up by a wooden framework

Wattle and Daub

39

The major church of a diocese, which contains the throne of a bishop

Cathedral

40

From the word for any figure made up of frequently intersecting lines; embroidery; (or) an English expression for a garden composed of small hedges, bedding plants, and other ground covers in elaborate designs and patterns reminiscent of the design used in embroidery

Knot Garden or Parterre

41

From the French word that means "embroidery on the ground"; an ornamental arrangement of flowerbeds with paths of gravel, pavement, or turf

Parterre (Broderie par terre)

42

A religious ceremonial purification by cleansing in water or other liquid; the liquid used

Ablution

43

The container that holds the cleansing liquid; may be a small or a large pool

Ablution Tank

44

French and English word for "in the Arab manner"; from Moorish and Persian designs, elaborate surface decoration of intertwined foliage, floral and geometrical patterns, painted or carved in low relief

Arabesque

45

Glazed pottery tiled usually painted in bright colors with floral and other patterns, much used on the interior and exterior of Spanish and Portuguese buildings

Azulejos

46

Italian and Spanish for house

Casa

47

Italian for small house; a summer or garden house of ornamental character for amusement purposes; (or) a small country house or lodge

Casino

48

A small square elevated structure in Indian (Moghul) gardens; an open dais or gazebo; often placed over a water channel and large enough for at least two persons to sit on, cushioned by oranate carpets and pillows

Chabutra

49

Persian for "fourfold water garden," where four water channels symbolize the four rivers of the world

Chadar-Bagh

50

The Persian word for "plane tree"; Ficus sycomorus; akin to American plane tree or sycamore

Chenar

51

Lace-like ornamental work of intertwined silver or gold wire; any delicate design

Filigree

52

Spanish for a traffic circle or a round junction of paths in a garden; equivalent of the French "Rond Point"

Glorieta

53

The exodus or escape of the prophet Mohammed, from persecutions in Mecca to Medina; (or) the era of Mohammed; (or) a journey, especially when undertaken to escape from danger

Hegira

54

The religious system of the Almighty Potentate, Allah, begun by Mohammed in A.D. 607-612, in todays's Saudi Arabia; Mohammedanism

Islam

55

The sacred book of the Islamic religion; the revelations to Mohammed by Allah, written in Arabic

Koran (Qur'an)

56

A city in western Saudi Arabia; one of two feudal capitals; birthplace of Mohammed; the religious capital of Islam

Mecca

57

A slender tower in Islamic architecture, with balcony at its top; built near of as part of, a mosque from which a crier calls the faithful to prayer

Minaret

58

A Spanish word for "window" or "balcony" that commands view, especially from a garden or courtyard

Mirador

59

His name means "to praise"; founder of Islam

Mohammed (Muhammad or Mahomet)

60

A Moslem of Arabic and Berber racial mix living in thr area of Morocco in Northwestern Africa; (or) a person from Morocco who invaded and settled in southern Spain in the eight century; they controlled the region of Andalusia until driven out by Christians in 1492; originated many playful uses of water in the garden

Moor

61

A place of adoration; a Moslem or Islamic temple or place of worship

Mosque

62

In Islamic religion, the crier, from minaret, calls the faithful to prayer five times each day

Muezzin

63

Pertaining to Mohammedism; a believer in Mohammed; an adherent of the Islamic religion

Moslem (Muslim)

64

Of Spanish origin; a residential courtyard surrounded by low buildings or walls; a paved area adjoining a house used for outdoor living

Patio

65

The Spanish word for public square in an urban area used as a market, park, or for assembly

Plaza

66

A small stream; rivulet

Rill or Runnel

67

A monastic society or fraternity; a society of persons living under the same religious, mora,, or social regulations

Order (i.e. The Franciscan order)

68

Use as a hall of justice in Roman time; (or) a church with a nave and aisles and with clerestory windows in the nave above the aisle roofs

Basilica

69

A continental feature and contrasts with the square termination of English Gothic churches; usually at the east end of a chapel or chancel

Apse

70

The open colonnaded forecourt in the early Christian basilicas or churches; often cloistered

Atrium

71

The superior or head of a monastery

Abbot