Outline I: Prehistory to Ancient Times Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Outline I: Prehistory to Ancient Times Deck (75):
1

Definition and date of Paleolithic Era

Old Stone Age (20,000 B.C. - 8,000 B.C.)

2

Definition and date of the Neolithic Era

New Stone Age (4,000 B.C. - 3,300 B.C.)

3

Date of the Bronze Age

(3,300 B.C. - 1,600 B.C.)

4

Duration of the Prehistoric Times

(20,000 B.C. - 3,300 B.C.)

5

Describe the Paleolithic Era (7 Key Points)

First tools (stone axe, knife)
Hunting skills evolving
Food gathering
Nomadic lifestyle
Worship of fertility goddess
Various races evolved

6

Describe the Neolithic Era (7 Key Points)

Earliest agriculture
Domestication of animals
Use of fire to clear fields
Formation of villages And towns
Evolution of power and authority
Improvement of Toolmaking techniques
Development of weaving and pottery

7

Describe the Mesolithic Era (3 Key Points)

More advanced hunting skills
Advancement on Plant collection techniques
Semi-settled lifestyle

8

Describe the Bronze Age (9 Key Points)

Transition from villages to cities
Food surplus and storage
Writing developed
Social organization
Metallurgy (bronze and copper tools)
Refined pottery skills
Mathematics
Astronomy
Calendar

9

Duration of the Ancient Times

(4,000 B.C. - A.D. 476)

10

Date of Egyptian Society

(4,000 B.C. - 500 B.C.)

11

With a desert environment that protected and stabilized the social system; annual flooding that led to having fertile agricultural lands

Egypt

12

What are the monumental structures in Egypt?

Ziggurats, pyramids, and axial funerary

13

Describe the formal residential estates and gardens in Egypt (5 Key Points)

Enclosed in walls
Included utilitarian plantings
Formal ground plan influenced by irrigation system
Included fish tanks or pools
Within a garden-like setting

14

An example of a formal residential estate in Egypt

Residential estate of high official of Amenhotep III, c. 1400 B.C,

15

Example of an axial funerary in Egypt

Queen Hatshepsut's mortuary temple, Dier el-Bahri, c. 1480 B.C

16

Has strong central government with pharaoh worshipped as god; slave labor maintained vital irrigation network; strong belief in afterlife

Egypt

17

Duration of Mesopotamian Civilizations

(3,500 B.C. - 538 B.C.)

18

Date of the Sumerian Society

(3,500 B.C. - 900 B.C.)

19

Date of the Assyrian Society

(900 B.C. - 625 B.C.)

20

Date of the Neo-Babylonian Society

(611 B.C. - 538 B.C.)

21

The "fertile crescent between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; a broad floodplain; more temperate climate than Egypt; with urbanized populations and social organization

Mesopotamia

22

One of its design expressions is the royal hunting parks

Mesopotamian Civilizations

23

Had the concept of "paradise" or "garden of Eden"

Mesopotamian Civilizations

24

The date and reason why the Hanging Gardens of Babylon created

(605 B.C.) Created for the wife of King Nebuchadnezzar

25

A "green mountain" of a seven-storied palace with gardens planted on each terrace level

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

26

Where walled cities were "organic" in form

Mesopotamia

27

Where residences were sun-baked brick with interior courtyards to provide open-air ventilation

Mesopotamia

28

The notion that heaven was capable of being created by human beings on the earth; quadrilaterally symmetrical; divided by four warer channels flowing from a central point

Paradise or Garden of Eden

29

Date of the Persian Society

(539 B.C. - 331 B.C.)

30

Its empire extended from Egypt to Indus River (India); characterized by hot, arid desert landscape with few fertile river valleys; practiced open-air worship

Persia

31

Persians are a synthesis of what societies?

Assyrians, Egyptians, and Ionian Greek

32

Ban of figurative art in Persia led to this type of design style

Geometric Abstract Patterns

33

Date of the Persian Society

(539 B.C. - 331 B.C.)

34

The end date of the Persian dominance and the person responsible for ending it

(331 B.C.) Alexander the Great

35

Persia's idealization of the world as "Paradise Gardens" (5 Key Points)

Geometric ground plan;
Biaxially divided
("four quarters of the universe" or "four rivers of heaven");
Enclosed within architectural walls;
Water in reflecting pools, cascades, and small fountains;
Lush plant material for shade and scent

36

Style that originated from Persia; created in Spain during the 14th century, specifically, in Alhambra, Generalife, and Alcazar

Islamic (Moorish) Style

37

Its empire extended from Egypt to Indus River (India); characterized by hot, arid desert landscape with few fertile river valleys; practiced open-air worship

Persia

38

Persians are a synthesis of what societies?

Assyrians, Egyptians, and Ionian Greek

39

Ban of figurative art in Persia led to this type of design style

Geometric Abstract Patterns

40

Date of the height of the Persian empire under Darius I and Xerxes

(523 B.C. - 465 B.C.)

41

The end date of the Persian dominance and the person responsible for ending it

(331 B.C.) Alexander the Great

42

Persia's idealization of the world as "Paradise Gardens" (5 Key Points)

Geometric ground plan;
Biaxially divided
("four quarters of the universe" or "four rivers of heaven");
Enclosed within architectural walls;
Water in reflecting pools, cascades, and small fountains;
Lush plant material for shade and scent

43

Style that originated from Persia

Islamic (Moorish) Style

44

Date of the height of the Persian empire under Darius I and Xerxes

(523 B.C. - 465 B.C.)

45

Date of the Greek society

(700 B.C. - 136 B.C.)

46

Situated on a rugged, mountainous indented peninsulas and islands that made land travel difficult, leading to maritime travel and communications; isolation of people into separate political units; hot, arid climate; with little arable land area

Greece

47

Their philosophy is based on the notion of pure reason and truth derived from scientific evidence; belief in a basic order and idealized harmonies of forms; polytheistic religion with many gods associated with natural phenomenon

Greeks

48

Basic order and idealized harmonies of forms

Golden Mean or Golden Section

49

The design expressions in Greece (5 Examples)

Polis or city-state
Planned colonial settlements
Acropolis
Sacred ground
Academy

50

Has restrictions on buildings heights and number of windows

Greece

51

Had walled towns with gridiron street pattern; major streets oriented north-south and east-west

Greece

52

Codified principles of planning in in 450 B.C.

Hippodamus

53

An example of planned colonial settlements in Greece

Miletus
Olynthus
Priene

54

Definition and date of the Mesolithic Era

Middle Stone Age (8,000 B.C - 4,000 B.C.)

55

An example of the Acropolis

Acropolis, Athens
Acropolis, Delphi

56

Date of the Roman World

(510 B.C. - A.D. 476)

57

Originated in the hot, arid central Italian peninsula and expanded westward to Spain and Scotland, and eastward to the Persian Gulf

Roman Society

58

Two main groups of the Roman World; one based on. Greek democracy and religion and the other, had a class syste under dictatorship of emperor

Roman Republic (510 - 27 B.C.) and Roman Empire (27 B.C. - A.D. 476)

59

The person who legalized Christianity as official religion in A.D. 313

Emperor Constantine

60

In A.D. 395, the Roman empire was split into Western and Eastern branches

Roman
Byzantine

61

Kinds of engineering and technological design expressions of the Romans

Roads
Bridges
Aqueducts
Fortresses and Walls
Walled Towns

62

Society or period and location of Hadrian's Wall

Roman Empire (c. A.D. 125) in England

63

Examples of walled towns in the Roman world

London
Pompeii

64

Examples of an urban open-space development in the Roman world

The Forum Romanum, Rome (c. 100 - 46 B.C.)
The Imperial Fora, Rome (44 B.C. - A.D. 112)

65

Examples of forum in the Imperial Fora, Rome (44 B.C. - 112 B.C.)

Forum of Julius Caesar (Julium, 44 B.C.)
Forum of Augustus (Augustum, A.D. 14)
Forum of Trajan (Trajani, A.D. 100 - 112)

66

An example of urban residential gardens during the Roman Empire

House of the Vettii, Pompeii

67

Types of Villas in the Roman world and an example of each

Villa urbana (Horace's Villa, Sabine Hills, 30 B.C.)
Villa rustica (Pliny the Younger's Vilka, Laurentinum, A.D. 100)

68

The book where the phrase "genius of the place" first appeared

Book V of Virgil's Aenid

69

The world's first literate civilization

Sumerian

70

System of writing on clay developed by the Sumerians of Mesopotamia

Cuneiform

71

Early expression of man's determination to place his mark upon an endless flat surface

Ziggurat

72

Sumer's greatest surviving monument; an artificial 'Hill of Heaven'

Ziggurat of Ur

73

Described as the mother-city if the manufactured landscape as well as of gardens

Babylon

74

The dominant military power in Mesopotamia

Assyrians

75

This site was chosen as the center of the world c. 540 BC by Cyrus the Great in the tradition if the earlier Achaemenid fortresses

Persepolis