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Flashcards in Biographical Sketches Deck (59):

(1860-1935) Social reformer; founder of Hull House in Chicago (settlement houses); believed that the development of playgrounds and parks were one of the answers to the slums and other problems; organized first true playground in 1894 and small park and playground system in Chicago; Nobel Peace Prize in 1931



"Nature and art should imitate each other"
(The Spectator, 1712-1724)

STEELE, Richard


(1908-1975) Chief planner and designer of Blue Ridge Parkway, the first national parkway and one of the largest landscape architectural contstruction built between 1935-1987; "scenic easement" as a new concept in land preservation; LA from Cornell University; a fellow in ASLA

ABBOTT, Stanley William


(1672-1719) Poet, philosopher, playwright, statesman, and social critic; saw French grand style gardens as out of character with the nature English environment; formal garden was "made by too much art"; characterized Chinese design as an "imitation of image of landscape microcosm...the design of vantage points to deceive the eye and captivate the ear"



(1404-1472) "Florentine Vitruvius"; writer of De Re Aedifactoria, Libri X, wherein he enumerated the planning and design guidelines were based on his understanding of those of the classical ancient Romans; clearest definers of design beauty

ALBERTI, Leone Battista


(1817-1891) A French engineer but with the sensibilities of a landscape architect; worked under Louis Napoleon; planned an supervised the transformation of Bois de Boulogne into a jardin anglais; collaborated with Baron Hausmann

ALPHALAND, Jean-Charles-Adolphe


(c. 141701379 BC) The Egyptian ruler during the New Kingdom's 18th dynasty; considered as one of the greatest builders in all of Egypt's long history; the Temple of Amun-Re in Luxor as his most notable work; his residential gardens depicted a well-preserved wall panting - one of the best records left to history of this garden type

Amenhotep III (Amenophis III)


(1701-1768) French painter and Jesuit priest who lived in Beijing, and sent home illsutrated acounts of the imperial gardens; upon perceiving the similarities of Chinese and English hardens, termed the style le jardin anglo-chinois

ATTIRET, Jean-Denis


(1561-1626) Philosopher, writer, and pioneer of the scientific method in England; wrote the essay Of Gardens (1625) discussing the basic principles of gardening and garden layout; "God Almighty first planted a garden"

BACON, Francis


(1598-1680) Commissioned by Louis XIV to remodel the Louvre palace in Paris, though unexecuted, the plans initiated the Roman baroque movement outside Italy

BERNINI, Giovanni Lorenzo


(d. 1633) A French gardener and author of the Traite du jardinage (1638); worked for Marie de Medici at the Luxemburg gardens in Paris with Claude Mollet; developed the parterre de broderie ("embroidery on the ground")

BOYCEAU, Jacques


(1444-1514) An Italian High Renaissance architect; designed the Tempietto ("little temple") as a shrine in 1502 on the site of St. Peter's crucifixion, and Cortile de Belvedere (1503) which revolutionized villa site planning



(d. 1738) An English landscape gardener who popularized the ha-ha wall as a landscape feature; toured China, and returned to write New Principles of Garden Design (1728), wherein he mentioned "chinoiserie" and suggested the grafting of Chinese features into classic forms; worked with John Vanbrugh at Stowe; apprenticed under London; set the stage for the transition to the natural style



(1716-1783) An English landscape gardener, was characterized by Walpole as creating "artificial natural-looking landscape"; the "serpentine line of beauty" defines his landscape gardens

BROWN, Lancelot "Capability"


(1377-1446) Considered as the first great architect of the Italian Renaissance



(1726-1796) A Scottish architect who went to China, and after, published Of the Art of Layout Out Gardens Among the Chinese, also published Designs of Chinese Buildings, Furniture, Dresses, Machines, and Utensils; a critic of the Brownian manner of landscape design; who initiated the late 18th-century controversy about the "picturesque" versus the "beautiful"

CHAMBERS, Sir William (1726-1796)


(c. 1576-1626) A French engineer and garden designer; designer of the castle gardens at Heidelburg, Germany, gardens at Hatfield House in Hertfordshire, England. and the waterworks of the gardens at Richmond; wrote Les Raisons des forces mouvantes and Hortus Palatinus

DE CAUX, Salomon


(1543-1607) An Italian architect and engineer; papal architect during Pope Sixtus V as cardinal; worked with Giacomo della Porta on completion of the dome of St. Peter's Basilica from a model and drawings of Michelangelo; notable urban design work was his ingenuous engineering solution to the problem of erecting the Egyptian obelisks in the Piazza del Popolo and in St. Peter's in the Vatican

FONTANA, Domenico


(1809-1891) ArchiTtect of the great changes in the appearance of Paris during the reign of Louis Napoleon; adapted the city planning principles of Louis XIV and Andre Le Notre with hi rebuilding of Paris; work with Alphaland, his assistant, in transforming Boise de Boulogne from French grand style into a jardin anglais

HAUSSMANN, Georges Eugene von (Baron)


(c. 500 BC) According to Aristotle, the "father of town planning"; devised the gridiron pattern of streets and building blocks



(1705-1785) A banker by profession, and the owner and designer of Stourhead, which Walpole called "one of the most picturesque gardens in the world"

HOARE, Henry


(1697-1764) Promoted the serpentine line as the "line of beauty" in his book The Analysis of Beauty (1753); that all beautiful forms follow an S-curve

HOGARTH, William


(1743-1826) One of America's greatest statesmen, also an indefatigable architect and landscape architect; popularized Classic Revival architecture in America; "No occupation is so delightful to me as the culture of the earth and no culture comparable to that of the garden...But though an old man, I am but a young gardener"



(1573-1652) An English architect who was heavily influenced by the designs of Andrea Palladio, and was responsible for introducing Italian Renaissance design ideas into Britain (Jacobean Period)

JONES, Inigo


(1684-1748) Alleged to have "leaped the fence and saw that all nature was a garden"; according to Horace Walpole, he stated "Nature abhors a straight line"; incorporating literary allusions and mythological content through naming and inscription - "Elysian Fields" and "Praeneste Terrace" at Stowe

KENT, William


(1579-1649) Japanese architect and garden designer, built many fine buildings and gardens in Kyoto; established a school of tea ceremony and flower arranging notable works were the Imperial Palace and Gardens (1596-1614) the Katsura Imperial Villa (1620), and Sento Gosho (1634)



(1679-1719) a French architect and garden designer who apprenticed under Andre Le Notre; laid out the grounds of Petergof in St. Petersburg, Russia for Peter the Great

LE BLOND, Jean-Baptise Alexandre


(1754-1825) A French soldier, engineer, and architect; hired by President Washington in 1791 to master plan the new capital, assisted by Tomas Jefferson

L'Enfant, Pierre Charles


(1613-1700) A French landscape designer who was the royal gardener for Louis XIV (the Sun King); laid out the gardens of the Chateau Vaux-le-Vicomte for Nicolas Fouquet and the hunting loge of Louis XIV in the village of Versailles, both in collaboration with Le Brun and Le Vau; employed the patte d'oie (goose foot) in the Versailles project



(1500-1583) An Italian architect and garden designer who worked with Orazio Olivierim a hydraulic engineer, on the design of the Villa d'Este in Tivoli, the romantic Renaissance water garden



(1707-1778) A Swedish naturalist, inventor of the Linnaean system of scientific plant and animal classification, using the binomial Latin delineation (genus and species)



(c. 1640-1713) Began a nursery in the city of London in 1681, in partnership with Henry Wise, making them the first commercial gardeners in England; among his most notable works were Hampton Court, London and Melbourne Hall, Derbyshire

LONDON, George


(c. 1510-1570) Studied ancient Roman architecture in Italy, and first to incorporate Italian Renaissance features into garden design in France; the royal architect for Henri II, and commissioned by Diane de Poitiers, mistress to the king, to develop the chateau at Anet - the first symmetrical union of gardens and building France

L'ORME, Philibert de


(1475-1564) Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet, designed the Capitaline Piazza (the Campidoglio) in Rome, the dome of the reconstructed St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, and the Porta Pia in Rome



(1396-1472) Architect and garden designer, favorite of the Medici family as they built palaces and villas around Florence in the 15th century Platonic Academy, the Villa Medici in Careggi, and the Villa Medici in Fiesole; design was based on Pliny the Younger's villa designs, and used neoclassical techniques to create a formal house and grounds in a hillside setting



(D. 1665) Best known as the author of Jardin de plaisir (1651), summarizing the basic principles of classic French formal garden design; a royal gardener to Louis XIII of France, and worked at St. James and Hampton Court for Charles II; influenced his British contemporaries George London and Henry Wise



(c. 1563-1664) A gardener at the Chateau Anet, and the gardener for Henri IV - designing gardens at Fountainbleau, Monteceau, the Tuileries, and Sain-German-en-Laye; said to have laid out the first parterre de broderie; father of the gardeners Andre, Gabriel, Jacques II, Noel, and Pierre

MOLLET, Claude, I


(1508-1580) Italian architect, consider the greatest architect of the late 16th-century Renaissance; his neoclassical style became the most influential and imitated in European architecture; author of I Quatro Libri dell'Architettura



(1746-1824) A Swedish landscape designer who redesigned the grounds of the royal palace, Drottningholm, and the Haga Park, both in Stockholm, into English-style landscape gardens

PIPER, Fredrik Magnus


(c. AD 61-113) A Roman governor and a playwright, who owned several rural villas, one of which is in Laurentinum; his other Roman country houses not only had pleasure gardens, but set amidst working farms



(1688-1744) Reffered to as "the man who perfected the shapeliest verse of his day [but] was a malignant little hunchback..."; in his Epistle to Burlington (1731), he stated: "In all, let Nature be forgot...Consult the Genuis of the Place"; "all gardening is a landscape painting"; a friend of both William Kent and Charles Bridgeman

POPE, Alexander


(1752-1818) "I have adopted the term Landscape Gardening...because the art can only be advanced and perfected by the united powers of the landscape painter and the practical gardener"; the first person to call himself a "landscape gardener"; he produced "red books" per client containing a lengthy essay explaining his rationale and recommendations, including "slides" of before and after scenes to show the character of his proposed design; his work was a major influence on the development of Victorian garden styles in the 19th century

REPTON, Humphry


(1839-1935) An Anglo-Irish landscape architect, author, and critic; opposed the "gardenesque" style and has been called the "self-appointed defender of the old 'landscape school'; his work characterized as a "Victorian naturalism" - a variation on the English kitchen garden, with an emphasis on the display of plants as specimens; "Gardening is an art: the work of an artist is always marked by its fidelity to Nature"



(1714-1763) Who Horace Walpole, in 1759, claimed was the first person to use the term 'landscape'; in connection with garden design; "I have used the work landskip-gardeners; because in pursuance of our present taste in gardening, every good painter of landskip appears to me the most proper designer"; developed a ferme ornee at the Leasowes, his estate in Warwickshire; first to use the terms "landscape gardening" and "landscape gardener" in his essay entitled "Unconnected Thoughts on Gardens"



(1843-1903) An Austrian architect, town planner, teacher, and author, who asserted that the 19th-century city could
better serve its inhabitants through concerted open-space planning and refinement of streetscape design detailing; "The essential thing both room and square is the quality of enclosed space"

SITTE, Camillo


(1472-1523) Also known as Shinso, a Japanese artist and garden designer who is credited with the restoration of Ryoan-ji in Kyoto (1488-1499), the most important Zen Buddhist garden of the kare-sansui



(1275-1351) A Japanese Zen Buddhist priest and garden designer who created the Silver Pavilion, the Saiho-ji ("Heart Garden"), and the Tenryui-ji, all in Kyoto

SOSEKI, Muso (Muso Kokushi)


(1682-175) Apprenticed under the great duo London and Wise at Castle Howard and Blenheim; the one who used the term 'ferme ornee' in connection with his description of a country seat, the 1st use of this expression; "A Design must submit to Nature, and not Nature to Design"



(1628-1699) Wrote the essay "The Gardens of Epicurus; or Gardening, in the Year, a work that began the fashion of chinoiserie in Europe; invented the term 'Sharawadgi' to characterize the irregularity to be seen in the gardens he saw

TEMPLE, Sir William


(1507-1573) An Italian architect and villa designer; the Villa Lante in Bagnaia, one of the most exquisite of the Italian Renaissance villas, is his most notable work, influenced by Pliny the Younger's writings on rural villas; commissioned by Cardinal Allesandro Farnese to complete work on his palazzo at Caprarola in 1556

VIGNOLA, Giacomo Barozzi da


(70-19 BC) A Roman poet and gentleman farmer, who wrote two books of poems, the Bucolics (shepherd poems) and the Georgics (agricultural poems); his later work, The Aenid, is a celebration of Roman chauvinism - a love of country; his poetry was popular in the 18th-century England, influential on the romantic landscape garden movement

VIRGIL (Publius Vergilius Maro)


(c. 1st century BC) A Roman architect and city planner, lived in the time of Augustus and the greatest activity in building construction in Rome; wrote De Architectura, which realty influenced the architectural design of the Italian High Renaissance

VITRUVIUS, Marcus Pollius


(1653-1737) English nurseryman and landscape gardener, began a nursery in London and partnered with George London, making them the first commercial gardeners in England; much of their work was transformed into a naturalistic landscape garden style by "Capability" Brown after 1750; designed the original plan of Blenheim, Oxfordshire

WISE, Henry


(1815-1852) He adapted Repton's approach of a more architectural garden that is in close proximity to the building, and was heavily influenced by Loudon; published his "A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America"; founded The Horticulturalist magazine; collaborated with Calvert Vaux for the White House and Smithsonian Museum (the "Castle") projects

DOWNING, Andrew Jackson


(1824-1895) An English architect and landscape architect who emigrated to the United States; first major landscape architectural project was the grounds of the Smithsonian Museum (the "Castle"); person who persuaded Olmsted to enter the Central Park competition in 1857

VAUX, Calvert


(1724-1804) English clergyman, considered the founder and master of the "picturesque school" in the landscape gardening controversy of the late 18th-century England; "view the country with the eyes formed into pictures"

GILPIN, Willaim


(1783-1843) Called by Andrew Downing "the most distinguished gardening author of our age"; began in 1822 to call for the establishment of public urban parks; an advocate of the return to geometric formalism, a style termed "gardenesque," or "Victorian," because of his belief that each different plant was to be seen individually rather than in masses; first developed the ridge-and-furrow system; published Gardener's Magazine from 1826-1843 and His Encyclopedia of Gardening in 1822

LOUDON, John Charles


(1807-1858) English writer on gardening, and a wife of the garden authority John Claudius Loudon; her writings were addressed specifically to female readers; Published Gardening for Ladies (1840) and the Ladies' Companion to the Flower-Garden (1841); served as an editor of The Ladies Companion, a periodical on subjects of interest of women

LOUDON, Jane Webb


(1803-1865) English arhictect and landsape gardeneer; appointed head gardener at Chatsworth House, the estate of the 6th Duke of Devonshirel designed the 226-acre Birkenhead Park (1844); designed the Conservatory (1836) and the Crystal Palace in London; first in England to coax a blossom from the giant water lily, Victoria amazonica

PAXTON, Sir Joseph