Flashcards in the urinary system: test 3 Deck (36):
where are the kidneys located?
the sit on posterior abdominal wall under the peritoneum (not visible unless peritoneum is removed) at level of T12-L3
what is the renal fascia?
it is dense irregular connective tissue attaching kidneys to abdominal wall (external kidney)
what is the term for adipose tissue (fat) surrounding kidney under renal fascia, it protects the kidney from trauma?
adipose capsule (external kidney)
what is the renal capsule?
it is a layer of connective tissue covering the kidney like skin (external kidney)
what is the opening on the medial side of the kidney lets blood vessels in and out and lets urine out?
renal hilus (external kidney)
what is the outer most tissue of the internal kidney?
renal cortex (internal kidney)
what is the inner tissue of the kidney that is broken into cone shaped segments called renal pyramids?
renal medulla (internal kidney)
what are the nozzle like structures at tips of renal pyramids that urine comes out of?
renal papilla (internal kidney)
what are renal columns?
they are areas of cortex tissue between the renal pyramids (internal kidney)
what is the renal sinus?
it is the hollow area inside the kidney, renal hilus leads into renal sinus (internal kidney)
what is the connective tissue bag that is located in the renal sinus, it collects urine and it is continuous with the ureter?
renal pelvis (internal kidney)
what are minor calyces?
extensions of the renal pelvis that wrap around renal papilla and collect urine. (internal kidney)
what is major calyx?
larger tubes formed by the juncture of 2 or 3 minor calyces takes urine to renal pelvis (internal kidney)
what are nephrons?
they are microscopic filtering units of kidney
what is the glomerulus (renal corpuscle)?
ball of fenestrated (leaky) capillaries. afferent arteriole BRINGS blood to glomerulus
efferent arteriole takes blood AWAY from glomerulus
it filters excess fluid, ions h+ and waste products from blood
what is the glomular capsule (renal corpuscle)?
it is a cup like structure of epithelial and connetive tissue around glomerulus. catches fluid and sends it to nephron tubule
what turns fluid into urine and has 3 parts?
what is the proximal convoluted and the distal convoluted tubule?
its one of the parts of the nephron tubule
what is the nephron loop?
it stats in cortex enters medulla, returns to cortex (part of the nephron tubule)
what is the collecting duct?
it collects urine from several nephrons, travels down medulla to papilla duct.
what is the papilla duct?
takes urine through renal papilla and into pelvis.
what is the tube from the kidneys that carries urine to the bladder (no sphincters?)
what is the mucosa of the ureters?
it is columnar epithelium that secretes alkaline mucus
what is the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the ureters?
what is the adventitia of the ureters?
it is fibrous connective tissue to hold the ureters in place
where is the urinary bladder located ?
anterior pelvic floor
what is the structure of the urinary bladder?
it is a bag of muscle that holds the urine in lower pelvis its has openings:
a)urethral openings from uterus
b)internal urethral orifice opening to urethra
what is the trigone?
it is the triangle on floor of bladder formed by openings
what is the mucosa of the urinary bladder?
it is transitional epithelium allows stretching, secretes alkaline mucus.
what is 3 layers of smooth muscle (like stomach) called detrusor muscle)?
muscularis of the urinary bladder
what is adventitia of urinary bladder?
what is the urethra
it is a tube like structure from bladder to opening
the urethra has 2 openings what are they?
a) internal urethra orifice at bladder
b) external urethral orifice to outside
what is the internal urethral sphincter?
at junction of bladder made of smooth muscle
what is the external urethral sphincter?
further down urethra, skeletal muscle