Things I don't know: Ob/gyn Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Things I don't know: Ob/gyn Deck (180)
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1

When and from what to germ cells originate?

4th week of embryonic life
endoderm of yolk sac

2

When/how do germ cells form primitive gonad?

6th week embryonic life
germ cells migrate to genital ridge and associate with somatic cells

3

What type of errors occur in older men vs. older women?

men: mitotic errors
women: chromosome errors

4

How does the number of sperm produced differ from the number of ova?

sperm: many millions, ongoing process after puberty
eggs: 2.5 million at birth (already have all you will make at this point), most degenerate, left with about 400 ova in reproductive years

5

When do oogonia
1. begin meiosis I
2. what phase does meiosis I arrest
3. when is meiosis I complete
4. what phase does meiosis II arrest
5. when is meiosis II complete

1. month 3 of embryonic development
2. prophase: diakinesis stage (as primary oocyte)
3. ovulation
4. metaphase (as secondary oocyte)
5. fertilization

6

What separates?
Are the products identical or different (ignoring recombination)?
What would be the chromosome result be if nondisjunction occurred and a trisomy child was born?
1. Meiosis I
2. Meiosis II

1. homologs; different; all 3 chromosomes are different
2. sister chromatids; identical; 2 chromosomes match (look at centromeric DNA that is not involved in crossing over), 1 is different

7

order of mitosis/meiosis

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

8

leptotene

1st stage prophase
chromosomes have replicated but lie on top of each other

9

zygotene

2nd stage prophase
homologous pairs move together and pair or synapse

10

pachytene

3rd stage prophase
first time you can see bivalent chromosome: CHEERLEADER pose
2 homologous chromosomes now look like a tetrad

11

diplotene

4th stage prophase
CROSSING OVER occurs at CHIASMATA

12

diakinesis

5th stage prophase
oogenesis is frozen here until ovulation

13

chiasmata

areas of contact between homologs allowing crossing over

14

metaphase

nuclear membrane disappears
spindles appear
pairs align on metaphase plate

15

anaphase

homologs/sister chromatids pulled apart by spindles attached to centromeres

16

telophase/cytokinesis

cell division

17

When does nondisjunction occur?
What will be the status of the chromosomes if a trisomy child is born of it?

Meiosis I
all chromosomes are different

18

Insl-3 (insulin-like substance 3)

produced by gonad
play role in testicular descent

19

If a child has streak gonads or no SRY gene (regardless if XX or XY), what will they look like?

no AMH: uterus, fallopian tubes
presents at female with no breasts or periods

20

Common findings in people with mullein duct abnormalities (MDA)

infertility
endometriosis
renal anomalies

21

When does the uterovaginal septum resorb?

9-12 weeks gestation

22

unicornate uterus
1. uterus
2. ovaries
3. kidneys
4. pregnancy considerations

1. development of only one horn of uterus
2. two
3. ipsilateral (same side) renal anomalies
4. pregnancy: normal outcome, preterm labor, malpresentation

23

uterus didelphys
1. uterus
2. ovaries
3. kidneys
4. pregnancy considerations

complete failure of duct fusion
1. two: separate uteri, upper vagina (lower may be separated by septum), cervizes
2. two
3. renal AGENESIS
4. normal, preterm

24

T shaped uterus

DES exposure in utero
risk for clear cell carcinoma of vagina and pregnancy loss

25

Rokitansky Kunster Hauser syndrome
1. uterus
2. ovaries
3. kidneys
4. pregnancy considerations

complete agencies of Mullerian structures
present: amenorrhea
1. NO upper vagina, cervix, uterus or tubes
2. 2 (has breast development)
3. anomalies, skeletal anomalies (bifid vertebra)
4. infertility
Tx: create neovagina

26

imperforate hymen

failure of reabsorption of uterovaginal septum
presentation: amenorrhea, cyclic pain, abdominal mass
Tx: hymenotomy (sew it open)

27

Risk factors you wouldn't think of for ectopic

IVF
endometriosis

28

Dx and Tx unstable ectopic

Dx: blood in abdomen, acute abdomen, blood loss (tachycardia, hypotension, anemia)
Tx: blood type and laparotomy

29

Dx and Tx stable ectopic

counsel about rupture
1. quantitative hCG: normally would double in 48 hours
2. progesterone: less than 5 means failed pregnancy
48 hours later
3. curette uterus: products of conception mean SAB; none mean ectopic
Tx: laparoscopy or METHOTREXATE

30

progesterone less than 5

FAILED pregnancy
ectopic of spontaneous abortion