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Flashcards in Path Deck (84)
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1

fetal growth restriction due to fetal abnormalities

SYMMETRIC
caused by: chromosomal disorders, congenital anomalies, congenital infections (TORCH)

2

TORCH

group of infections (transplacental)
toxoplasmosis (cat litter), rubella, CMV, herpesvirus, other viruses and bacteria (syphilis and listeria)

3

fetal growth restriction due to placental abnormalities

ASYMMETRIC
spares brain
caused by: UTEROPLACENTAL INSUFFICIENCY: umbilical-placental vascular anomalies, plactena abruption, placenta previa, placental thrombosis/infarction, placental infection, multiple gestations

4

What is a third trimester loss usually due to?

placental insufficiency

5

fetal growth restriction due to maternal abnormalities

maternal conditions that result in decreased placental blood flow
caused by: vascular disease: PREECMAPSIA, CHRONIC HTN

6

spontaneous abortion

pregnancy loss before 20 weeks gestation
causes
1. fetal chromosomal anomalies (50% of early loss)
2. maternal endocrine factors
3. physical defects of uterus
4. systemic disorders affecting the maternal vasculature
5. ascending infection

7

How does an maternal infection cause a fetal inflammatory response?

inflammation of umbilical vessels (vasculitis) and cord substance (funisitis)

8

Twin-twin transfusion

MONOCHORIONIC
ARTERIOVENOUS SHUNT increases blood flow to one twin

9

monochorionic

twin placentas have vascular anastomoses that connect the twins' circulation

10

decidua

endometrium of uterus in a pregnant woman

11

Homeobox genes (HLX and DLX3)

expressed in trophoblast and its blood vessels
dysfunctional in preeclampsia

12

amnion nodosum

nodules seen in placentas effected by oligohydramnios
associated with: stratified squamous metaplasia
due to: renal agenesis

13

IHC: p57

neg. has relationship to hydatidiform moles

14

Choriocarcinoma: gross appearance

soft, fleshy, yellow-white tumor with large areas of necrosis and extensive hemorrhage

15

complications of pre-maturity

1. neonatal distress syndrome, hyaline membrane disease
2. necrotizing enterocolitis
3. sepsis
4. intraventricular and germinal matrix hemorrhage

16

pathology of hyaline membrane disease

1. reduced surfactant (increase tension)
2. atelectasis (uneven perfusion, hypoventilation)
3. hypoxemia and CO2 retention (acidosis, pulmonary vasoconstriction and hypoperfusion)
4. endothelial and epithelial damage
5. plasma leak into alveoli: fibrin and necrotic cells increase diffusion gradient

17

fetal hydrops

accumulation of edema fluid in the fetus during intrauterine growth
caused by: CV, chromosomal, fetal anemia (immune (Rh, ABO), ParvoB19, homozygous alpha thalassemia), twin-twin

18

triple risk model of SIDS

1. vulnerable infant
2. critical developmental period in homeostatic control
3. exogenous stressor (smoking, cockroach, sleeping on belly, overweight, sleep with parents)

19

progesterone withdrawal test

pos. for bleeding: PCOS
neg. for bleeding: premature ovarian failure

20

When will the majority of breast cancers metastasize?

by the time you can palpate them: 2-3cm

21

Most common presentation of breast CA

abnormal mammogram

22

fibrocystic changes: radial scar

proliferative type: increased risk for invasive carcinoma

23

lymphocytic mastitis

type of breast inflammation
due to: DM, autoimmune

24

granulomatous mastitis

type of breast inflammation

25

Genetic profile of breast CA
1. luminal A
2. luminal B
3. HER2 positive
4. Basal type

1. ER pos.; HER2 neg.
2. ER pos.; HER2 overexpressed
3. ER neg.; HER2 overexpressed
4. ER and HER2 neg.

26

Characteristics of breast CA linked to inherited mutations

more likely to be/have
1. bilateral
2. other CA (ovarian)
3. Family Hx
4. CA before menopause
5. certain ethnicity

27

BRCA mutation

tumor suppressor genes
breast CA (BOTH alleles must be inactivated)
more common in Ashkenazi Jew
most carriers develop CA by 70

28

Li-Fraumeni

p53 mutation
Breast CA

29

Cowden

PTEN mutation
breast CA

30

ataxia-telangiectasia carriers

breast CA