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Flashcards in Phys I suppose Deck (30):
1

follicle maturation

first four have ovum
1. primordial follicle
2. primary follicle
3. secondary follicle with follicular antrum
4. graafian follicle
OVULATION
5. corpus luteum
6. corpus albicans

2

follicle purpose

site of oocyte development and hormone production

3

hormones produced by granolas cell

steroid: estrogen, progesterone
peptide: inhibin, activin

4

corpus luteum

produces: estrogen, progesterone, inhibin, activin
regresses 10 days after fertilization if no fertilization occurs

5

What is the main provider of cholesterol for steroid hormone synthesis?

LDL

6

cholesterol desmolase (CYP11A1)

theca cell: important in E and P production; testis: T production
convert cholesterol to pregnenolone
under LH control

7

3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

pregnenolone to progesterone
DHEA to androstenedione

8

What cells in the ovary produce progesterone?
What regulates its production>

production regulated by LH
theca
granulosa: follicular phase
corpus luteum: after ovulation

9

What cells in the ovary produce estrogen?
What regulates its production?

production regulated by: FSH, LH
granulosa cells: follicular phase
corpus luteum: after ovulation(luteal phase)

10

17 B hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

granulosa cell: important in E production; testis
androstenedione to testosterone

11

aromatase

granulosa cell: important in E production
testosterone to estrogen
under FSH control

12

functions of granulosa cell

1. nourish oocyte
2. secrete messenger that influence the oocyte and theca cells
3. secrete antral fluid
4. site of action for E and FSH in follicle development in early and middle follicular phase
5. convert estrogen to androgen
6. inhibin
7. site of action for LH induction of changes in oocyte and follicle culminating in ovulation and formation of corpus luteum

13

inhibin

sertoli or granulosa cell
inhibits FSH

14

H-P-ovary feedback in menstrual cycle
1. early and mid follicular phase
2. mid cycle: immediately before ovulation
3. luteal phase

1. FSH and LH stimulate E by follicular cells: low [E]: neg feedback on LH, FSH
2. high [E] pos. feedback: increase GnRH production, increase anterior pituitary GnRH receptors, increase LH, FSH: ovulatory surge: release of mature oocyte
3. progesterone is produced: neg. feedback: inhibit FSH and LH

15

what is the goal of contraception

inhibit FSH and LH: reduce estrogen

16

beta globulin

same as SHBG

17

effects of estrogen
1. uterus
2. ovary
3. vagina
4. fallopian tubes
5. breast
6. ant. pituitary
7. bone
8. liver
9. heart
10. vessels

1. growth, maturation, maintenance of pregnancy
2. growth
3. maturation
4. stimulate ciliary activity
5. feedback (neg. and pos.); PRL secretion
6. growth
7. preserve bone density
8. decrease LDL
9. cardioprotective
10. anti-atherosclerotic

18

effects of progesterone
1. uterus
2. breast
3. Ant. pituitary
4. body temp.

1. regulates secretory activity in luteal phase, prep endometrium for pregnancy, maintain pregnancy, decrease spontaneous contractions
2. regulate development
3. neg. feedback: FSH, LH
4. increases (1 day after ovulation)

19

best time for fertilization

12-24 hr of ovulation
BEFORE increase in body temp

20

activin

pos. feedback on ant pituitary: stimulates FSH: stimulate estrogen production

21

Where are sperm produced?

seminiterous tubules

22

sertoli cell function

nursing: support cells
control: FSH, testosterone
1. nourish
2. blood-testis barrier
3. SHBG production
4. inhibin production
5. produce estrogen
6. GF for Leydig cells
7. eliminate defective sperm
8. AMH
9. SPERMATOGENESIS

23

testosterone function

1. stimulate sperm production
2. secondary sex characteristics
3. neg. feedback on LH

24

5 alpha reductase

TARGET tissue (not testis)
testosterone to DHT

25

T precursors

pregnenolone
progesterone
dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
androstnedione

26

statins effect on T and E in a man

no change in T
increase circulating E

27

T production by age
1. birth
2. early infancy
3. reproductive age
4. greater than 55 years

1. drops
2. transient mini-puberty, then drops
3. peaks
4. reduces with age

28

effects of T and DHT in male

1. stimulate spermatogenesis
2. maintain function of seminal vesicles (T); prostate (DHT)
3. induce secondary sex characteristics
4. protein anabolism, regulate bone growth
5. sex drive, aggression
6. neg. feedback on GnRH and LH (T)

29

T and DHT effects: male secondary characteristics
1. breast
2. hair
3. skin
4. muscle
5. bone
6. metabolism
7. RBC
8. aggression
9. depression
10. fat
11. sex drive

1. oppose E
2. pubic, chest, facial hair growth; baldness (DHT)
3. increase thickness, sebaceous glands (DHT)
4. growth (T)
5. growth, Ca retention
6. increase
7. increase EPO
8. increase
9. decrease
10. decrease
11. increase

30

E production in males

liver, testes, muscle, brain, fat
necessary for male fertility: present in seminiferous tubules to control spermatogenesis