Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Deck (14)
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1

What is thoracic outlet syndrome?

Compression of 1 or more of the neurovascular structures in the thoracic outlet

2

What structures are commonly affected?

Brachial plexus
Subclavian artery
Subclavian vein

3

Where is the thoracic outlet

Area between the neck/shoulder, top of the thorax and under the clavicle to the axilla

4

What are common causes of thoracic outlet syndrome?

Trauma
Repetitive movements
Cervical rib

5

What are risk factors for developing TOS?

Cervical rib
Trauma
Poor posture
Repetitive overhead activity
Obesity
Female

6

What are the types of TOS?

Neurological TOS
Vascular TOS

7

What is neurological TOS?

Injury of the brachial plexus

8

What is vascular TOS?

Compression of the subclavian vein/artery

9

What are the symptoms of neurological TOS?

Painless hand muscle wasting
Numbness/tingling
Cold hands
Arm swelling

10

What are the symptoms of vascular TOS?

Diffuse arm swelling
Distended veins
Painful arm claudication
Ulceration

11

What investigations are used in suspected TOS?

Cervical spin x-ray
CXR

EMG/nerve conduction study - if neurological is suspected

CT angiography - if arterial suspected

Doppler ultrasonography - if venous is suspected

12

How is neurological TOS managed?

Surgery to manage nerve compression if present

Conservative management

13

How is arterial TOS managed?

Surgery - decompression

14

How is venous TOS managed?

Catheter-directed thrombolysis