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Flashcards in Lung Cancer Deck (31)
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1

What is the most common type of lung cancer?

Bronchial

2

What common cancers metastasise to the lungs?

Breast
Prostate
Ovarian
Renal cell

3

What are cannonball mestastases?

Metastases from
- prostate
- ovary
- kidney

Circular 'cannonball' appearance on x-ray

4

What are the risk factors for lung cancer?

Smoking
Occupation (dye workers, agricultural workers)
Asbestos
Family history
Increasing age

5

What cancer is associated with asbestos?

Mesothelioma

6

What are the 2 broad categories of lung cancer?

Small cell

Non small cell

7

What is small cell lung cancer?

Neuroendocrine tumours that arise from Kulchitksy cells

8

What are complications of SCLC?

SiADH
Secondary cushing's disease

9

What is the prognosis of SCLC?

Poor
- rapid growing

10

What is non small cell lung cancer?

Anyother type of lung cancer

11

What are the types of NSCLC?

Squamous
Adenocarcinoma
Large cell
Carcinoid
Bronchoalveolar

12

How does sqaumous NSCLC present?

Obstructive lesions of bronchus

13

Where does squamous NSCLC spread?

Locally

14

How does adenocarcinoma NSCLC present?

Mucous cells

Invasion of pleura and mediastinal lymph nodes

15

What is adenocarcinoma NSCLC associated with?

Asbestos
Non-smokers

16

Where does adenocarcinoma NSCLC spread?

Brain
Bone

17

What is the presentation of lung cancer?

Cough
SoB
Chest pain
Haemoptysis

Weight loss
Fever
Night sweats

18

What are the complications of lung cancer?

Horner's syndrome
Recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy
SVC obstruction

19

What is Horner's syndrome?

Interuption of face's sympathetic supply due to apical tumour

20

What are the symptoms of Horner's syndrome?

Ipsilateral
- ptosis - droopy eyelid
- miosis - pupil constriction
- enopthalmos - sunken eye
- anhydrosis - lack of sweating

21

What is the sign of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy?

Hoarse voice

22

What are signs of SVC obstruction?

Swollen face
Swollen arms
Dyspnoea

23

What are investigations for suspected lung cancer?

ECG
CXR
Bloods - FBC, U+Es, CRP
CT CAP
Bronchoscopy
Biopsy

24

How is the diagnosis of lung cancer made?

Good imaging + biopsy

25

How can biopsies be taken?

Fine needle aspirate
Core biopsy
Bronchoalveolar lavage

26

How is NSCLC staged?

TMN

27

How is NSCLC managed?

Smoking cessation
MDT

Chemotherapy (stages 1-4)
Radiotherapy (stages 1-3)
Surgery (stages 1-2)

28

How SCLC staged?

Limited stage

Extensive stage

29

What is limited stage SCLC?

Cancer in only 1 part of chest

30

What is extensive stage SCLC?

Spread further around lungs/body