What does trunk consist of?
thorax and abdomen
Where is the thorax?
from base of neck to the diaphragm muscle
What is thorax function?
protect heart and lung
What are muscles that thorax attached to?
Where is the abdomen?
from diaphragm muscle to pelvic inlet
What does abdomen contain?
major viscera of digestive system
What does hold viscera in place?
What part of abdomen doesn't have bony structure?
What is the name for superior thorax?
superior thoracic aperture or thoracic inlet
What is the shape of superior thorax?
What is superior thorax formed of?
T1 vertebrae, 1st pair of ribs and superior margin manubrium
What does superior border of thorax include?
apex of lungs
common carotid artery
internal jugular vein
subclavian artery & vein
Esophagu & trachea
what is the cause of thoracic inlet syndrome?
compressiion of thoracic inlet
What are the symptoms of thoracic inlet syndrome?
Reduced blood flow (cool bluish skin)
C8+T1 damaged -> loose the sense of your hand
What does brachial plexus supply?
C8 + T1
Where is the inferior thorax?
wide opening formed by T12 vertebrae, 12th pair ribs & costal arch
What are in the anterior border of thorax?
sternumb, ribs and costal cartilages
What are part of the posterior thorax?
thoracic vertebrae and ribs
How many thoracic vertebraes are there?
What are parts of sternum?
Where is the jugular notch?
on top of the sternum of manubrium
What is the sternal angle?
between body and manubrium
what true ribs are there?
1-7 ribs attached to sternum
What are there false ribs?
8-10 superior without attaching to sternum
What are the floating ribs?
10-11 as it doesn't have anterior attachment
Where does common carotid artery going through?
Where does the subclavian artery and veins go to?
How many joints does thorax have?
2 posterior joints and 4 anterior joints
What are those 2 posterior joints?
costovertebral and costotransverse
What kind is costovertebral joint?
plane joint and connecting between head of ribs and two vertebrae
What ligaments does costovertebral joints have?
radiate (stellate) lig
What does interosseous ligament do?
connecting crest of head (ribs) to vertebrae disk
What does radiate (stellate) lig do?
reinforce the ligament of costalvertebral joints
What do the ribs of thorax consist of?
head, neck and body
What does travel through costal groove?
veins and nerves
What does the crest of head of ribs do?
articulate with the vertebral body at the costovertebral joint
What part of the rib that articulate with the transverse process of vertebrae?
Tubercle of the neck
What does costotransverse joints consist of?
superior CT lig
CT proper or posterior
lateral CT lig
What does superior CT ligament connect?
superior surface crest of neck to inferior surfeace of transverse process
What does CT proper or posterior connect?
posterior surface of neck to the anterior surface of transverse process
Where does the tubercle of rib articulate?
the transverse process at costotransverse joint
Where is the most vulnerable broken place of the rib?
What does lateral CT lig connect?
tip of transverse process and tubucle of rib
What is the action does rib 1-7 do?
roll (pump handle movement)
What action does rib 8-10 do?
silde (buckle handle movement)
What are 4 anterior thorax joints?
What kind of joints is constalchondral? chondrosternal?
synchondrosis for the 1st rib and plane joint for the remaining
What are parts of rib-sternum joints?
constochondral and chondrosternal
What is the costochondral joint?
the rib start of costal cartilage
What is the chondrosternal joint?
the sternum costal cartilage
What are parts of intrasternal joints?
What kind of jointis is manubriosternal? Where is it?
symphysis. In manubrium
What kind of joint
Muscle that attach to the ribs has the potential to affect respiration
What are the thoracic muscles concerned exclusively w/ respiration?
What muscle cover the thoracic wall?
What is the layer muscles of intercostal?
Where is the external intercostal muscle bulk in?
in back (posterior)
Where is the internal ntercostal muscle bulk in?
What muscles are made of the innermost?
transversus thoracics (anterior)
What is the levator costarum muscle?
transverse process to 1 or 2 ribs below between tubercle and angle
What muscle is inferomedial in intercostal?
external intercostal muscle
What intercostal muscles that are superomedial?
internal intercostal muscles and innermost intercostal
Where does nerve and blood vessels travel in the intercostal muscle layers?
between internal and innermost intercostal muscle
What does the endothoracic fascia do?
line the thoracic cage
What is the order of thoracic fascia layer?
What is in between parietal and visceral pleura?
What is the function of pleural cavity?
reduce fiction between visceral and parietal pleura
What is the suprapleural membrane?
endothoracic fascia covering apices of lung
What are the nerves supply that travel through thorax?
What are the blood supplies for thorax?
Posterior intercostal artery
What arteries does posterior intercostal give off?
segmental medullary arteries
Where does the posterior intercostal artery travel?
between innermost and internal muscle thorax
What does the internal thoracic artery give off?
anterior IC art
anterior cutaneous artery
What does give off the intercostal nerve ?
anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerve
What does the intercostal nerve give off?
anterior and lateral cutaneous nerve
Where is the subcostal blood?
under rib 12 because it doesn't travel between internal and innermost intercostal anymore
What is the travel route of intercostal nerve?
1-6 gives off anterior cutaneous nerves then 7-12 innervate abdominal oblique muscle
What blood supply the 1st IC spaces of thorax?
superior thoracic artery
supreme IC artery
What is the other name for interosseous lig?
Where does the posterior IC drain into?
azygos or hemiazygos
where does anterior IC drain into?
What are part of lymphatic?
Where does the axillary artery drain into?
Where does the parasternal artery drain into? Intercostal?
deep anterior thorax
deep posterior thorax
What is the order of vein artery and nerve superiorly?
VAN ( Vein -> Artery -> Nerve)
What is the transversalis fascia similar to?
endothoracic fascia of thorax
What is the fascia layer of abdomen?
What are the abdomen muscle?
4 anterior muscle and 4 posterior muscles
What is similar to the external abdominal oblique?
external intercostal muscle (inferomedially)
What does the external oblique aponeurosis contribute to?
What is the linea alba?
insertion of external oblique. midline of the abs
What does the inguinal ligament do?
connect ASIS to the pubic tuberole
Where is the orign of external oblique? Insertion?
What action does external oblique do? Internal?
Origin of internal oblique? Insertion?
What is the deepest abdomen muscle? Is this muscle same as to the intercostal muscle in thorax?
No because its different muscle from internal/external oblique
What is the function of abdomen?
support the abdominal viscera
move the trunk
What actions does abdomen do?
compression (normal action and reverse action)
What is the insertion when you move your trunk?
costal attachment (ribs)
Does transverus abdominus help to move the trunk?
Internal Oblique: reverse action?
External oblique: reverse action?
What movement of the trunk?
bilateral: flex trunk
unilateral: lateral flexion/rotation
What movement does the rectus abdominus do?
pull the thorax toward the abdomen
What is rectus abdominus different from other muscle?
It doesn't run on fiber from origin to the insertion
What are the blood supplies for abdomen?
What are the nerve supply to abdominal flat muscle?
from the continuation of the thorax (anterior rami T7-T11 and subcostal)
ilioinguinal & iliohypogastric (L1)
Cutaneous (continuation of the bigger nerves)
What are the blood supplies for flat anterior?
lower posterior intercostal & subcostal
deep circumflex iliac
What are the blood supplies for rectus abdominus?
Where does the superior epigastric come from?
internal thoracic artery
What made of rectus sheath?
External/Internal Oblique, Transversus abdominus and transverilis fascia
What is the inguinal canal?
the passage in the anterior abdominal wall that having the spermatic cord or lig. of uterus going through
What does the cremaster reflex do?
muscle contract and elevate testes
What is the origin of rectus abdominus?
the xiphoid process of thorax
What is the motor command nerve of cremaster reflex?
What is the border of inguinal canal?
Floor: inguinal ligament
Wall(superficial): external abdominal oblique
Internal Wall (deep): transversalis fascia
Roof: Internal Ab oblique, transverse abdominus
What is the opening of inguinal canal?
transversus fascia (deep ring)
What is the exit of inguinal canal?
superficial ring (external abd oblique)
What happen to the indirect inguinal hernia(75%)?
it goes through the deep ring, through canal and out of the superfial ring follow testes
What happens in the direct (25%) inguinal hernia?
bypasses the deep ring creating a new hole in the transversalis fascia and out the superficial ring
What are the posterior muscles of abdomen?
What actions does quadratus lumborum do?
unilateral action: side bending (lateral flexion)
reverse action (elevate hip/pelvis)
What is the origin of quadratus lumborum? insertion?
abdomen muscles (L1-4)
Where is the psoas major?
What is the sensory nerve for cremaster circumflex?
What made of iliopsoas? What is it powerful of?
psoas major and iliacus
What are the vestigeal muscle in posterior abdomen?
What are the blood supplies for posterior abdomen muscles?
lumbar artery and subcostal
What is the primary muscle of inspiration?
What is the origin of diaphragm? Insertion
the outer part of diaphragm (contractile)
the non-contractile tendon (central)
What are the region of diaphragm?
sternal (xiphoid process)
costal (lateral and medial articulate ligs) cartilage 7,8,9 and end of 10.12
What does lateral arcuate ligament attach to?
What does the medial arcuate ligament attach to?
What made of the space for aorta?
cruna and median arcuate lig
Where is the aorta hiatus? esophageal hiatus? vena caval hiatus?
T12 (thorax to abdomen)
T10 (head to abdomen)
T8 (abdomen to thorax)
What nerves innervate diaphragm?
C3-C5 phrenic nerves come together to innervate diaphragm
What activate the phrenic nerves?
brainstem respiratory nuclei
What are the blood supplies to diaphragm?
superior and inferior phrenic artery
Where is the superior phrenic art? inferior?
branch of the aorta above the diaphragm
branch of the aorta below the diaphragm
What are the blood supplies for abdomen?
inferior vena cava
what are the types of abdominal aorta?
3 anterior visceral unpaired
4 lateral visceral paired
posterior parietal paired
Is subcostal artery branch off from aorta?
No, because it is below T12 and in abdomen, it is also considered to supply blood to abdomen
What are the 3 types anterior visceral unpaired?
What does celiac trunk supply? sup. mesenteric? inf. mesenteric?
what are the 4 lateral visceral paired?
What does inf phrenic supply? Middle suprarenal? renal? reproductive?
What is the aneurysm? What does it lead to?
weaken wall of artery
What are the posterior parietal paired?
4 lumbar and 1 median scaral
What are the terminal branches of abdominal aorta?
common iliacs (each on one leg)
What do lumbar arteries supply?
posterior abdominal wall muscle and spinal cord
Where are the common iliac arteries?
What are the branches of common iliac arteries?
external and internal iliac arteries
What are the internal iliac arteries?
super/infer gluteal and obturator
What are the branches of external iliac arteries?
deep circumflex iliac
inferior circumflex iliac
What does external iliac supply?
lower extremity (femoral artery)
Where are the internal/external iliac located?
What does deep circumflex iliac supply? and Where does it branches from?
lower abdominals and it branches from external iliac artery
What does inferior epigastric supply?
Where does inferior vena cava go through? Where is it?
vena cava hiatus
What does obturator arteries supply?
obturator internus & externus, hip joint
What is the external iliac equivalent to?
axillary arteries in arm
What does superior gluteal arteries supply?
gluteus maximus, medius & minimus; tensor fascia latae
What does inferior gluteal supply?
gluteus maximus, obturatus internus, quadratus femoris, superior hamstrings