Thorax&Abdomen Flashcards Preview

Gross Anatomy > Thorax&Abdomen > Flashcards

Flashcards in Thorax&Abdomen Deck (176):
1

What does trunk consist of?

thorax and abdomen

2

Where is the thorax?

from base of neck to the diaphragm muscle

3

What is thorax function?

protect heart and lung

4

What are muscles that thorax attached to?

upper limb

back 

respiration

5

Where is the abdomen?

from diaphragm muscle to pelvic inlet

6

What does abdomen contain?

major viscera of digestive system

7

What does hold viscera in place?

masculature

8

What part of abdomen doesn't have bony structure?

lumbar vertebrae

9

What is the name for superior thorax?

superior thoracic aperture or thoracic inlet

10

What is the shape of superior thorax?

kidney-shaped opening 

11

What is superior thorax formed of?

T1 vertebrae, 1st pair of ribs and superior margin manubrium

12

What does superior border of thorax include?

apex of lungs

common carotid artery

internal jugular vein

subclavian artery & vein

Esophagu & trachea

brachial plexus

13

what is the cause of thoracic inlet syndrome?

compressiion of thoracic inlet

14

What are the symptoms of thoracic inlet syndrome?

Reduced blood flow (cool bluish skin) 

muscle weakness

C8+T1 damaged -> loose the sense of your hand

15

What does brachial plexus supply?

C8 + T1

16

Where is the inferior thorax?

wide opening formed by T12 vertebrae, 12th pair ribs & costal arch

17

What are in the anterior border of thorax?

sternumb, ribs and costal cartilages

18

What are part of the posterior thorax?

thoracic vertebrae and ribs

19

How many thoracic vertebraes are there?

12

20

What are parts of sternum?

manubrium

body 

xiphoid process

jugular notch

sternal angle

 

21

Where is the jugular notch?

on top of the sternum of manubrium

22

What is the sternal angle?

between body and manubrium

23

what true ribs are there?

1-7 ribs attached to sternum

24

What are there false ribs?

8-10 superior without attaching to sternum

25

What are the floating ribs?

10-11 as it doesn't have anterior attachment

26

Where does common carotid artery going through?

cervical vertebrae

27

Where does the subclavian artery and veins go to?

the arm

28

How many joints does thorax have?

2 posterior joints and 4 anterior joints

29

What are those 2 posterior joints?

costovertebral and costotransverse

30

What kind is costovertebral joint?

plane joint and connecting between head of ribs and two vertebrae

31

What ligaments does costovertebral joints have?

interosseous ligament

radiate (stellate) lig

32

What does interosseous ligament do?

connecting crest of head (ribs) to vertebrae disk

33

What does radiate (stellate) lig do?

reinforce the ligament of costalvertebral joints

34

What do the ribs of thorax consist of?

head, neck and body

35

What does travel through costal groove?

veins and nerves

36

What does the crest of head of ribs do?

articulate with the vertebral body at the costovertebral joint

37

What part of the rib that articulate with the transverse process of vertebrae?

Tubercle of the neck 

38

What does costotransverse joints consist of?

superior CT lig

CT proper or posterior

lateral CT lig

39

What does superior CT ligament connect?

superior surface crest of neck to inferior surfeace of transverse process

40

What does CT proper or posterior connect?

posterior surface of neck to the anterior surface of transverse process

41

Where does the tubercle of rib articulate?

the transverse process at costotransverse joint

42

Where is the most vulnerable broken place of the rib?

costal angle

43

What does lateral CT lig connect?

tip of transverse process and tubucle of rib

44

What is the action does rib 1-7 do?

roll (pump handle movement)

45

What action does rib 8-10 do?

silde (buckle handle movement)

46

What are 4 anterior thorax joints?

2 rib-sternum 

2 intrasternal 

47

What kind of joints is constalchondral? chondrosternal?

synchondrosis.

synchondrosis for the 1st rib and plane joint for the remaining

48

What are parts of rib-sternum joints?

constochondral and chondrosternal

49

What is the costochondral joint?

the rib start of costal cartilage

50

What is the chondrosternal joint?

the sternum costal cartilage

51

What are parts of intrasternal joints?

manubriosternal

xiphisternal

52

What kind of jointis is manubriosternal? Where is it?

symphysis. In manubrium

53

What kind of joint

54

Muscle that attach to the ribs has the potential to affect respiration

Pectoral muscles

55

What are the thoracic muscles concerned exclusively w/ respiration?

diaphragm

intercostal

serratus posterior

levator costarum

56

What muscle cover the thoracic wall?

pectoral

serratus anterior

trapezius

lats

erector spinae

57

58

What is the layer muscles of intercostal?

external

internal

innermost layer

59

Where is the external intercostal muscle bulk in?

in back (posterior)

60

Where is the internal ntercostal muscle bulk in?

anterior

61

What muscles are made of the innermost?

Innermost (lateral)

transversus thoracics (anterior)

subcostals (posterior)

62

What is the levator costarum muscle?

transverse process to 1 or 2 ribs below between tubercle and angle

63

What muscle is inferomedial in intercostal?

external intercostal muscle

64

What intercostal muscles that are superomedial?

internal intercostal muscles and innermost intercostal

65

Where does nerve and blood vessels travel in the intercostal muscle layers?

 

between internal and innermost intercostal muscle

66

What does the endothoracic fascia do?

line the thoracic cage

67

What is the order of thoracic fascia layer?

superficial

deep layer

thoracolumbar 

endothoracic

suprapleural

68

What is in between parietal and visceral pleura?

pleural cavity

69

What is the function of pleural cavity?

reduce fiction between visceral and parietal pleura

70

What is the suprapleural membrane?

endothoracic fascia covering apices of lung 

71

What are the nerves supply that travel through thorax?

intercostal nerve

subcostal nerve

72

What are the blood supplies for thorax?

Posterior intercostal artery

73

What arteries does posterior intercostal give off?

segmental medullary arteries

74

Where does the posterior intercostal artery travel?

between innermost and internal muscle thorax

75

What does the internal thoracic artery give off?

anterior IC art

anterior cutaneous artery

76

What  does give off the intercostal nerve ?

anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerve

77

What does the intercostal nerve give off?

anterior and lateral cutaneous nerve

78

Where is the subcostal blood?

under rib 12 because it doesn't travel between internal and innermost intercostal anymore

79

What is the travel route of intercostal nerve?

1-6 gives off anterior cutaneous nerves then 7-12 innervate abdominal oblique muscle

80

What blood supply the 1st IC spaces of thorax?

superior thoracic artery

supreme IC artery

81

What is the other name for interosseous lig?

intra-articular lig

82

Where does the posterior IC drain into?

azygos or hemiazygos

83

where does anterior IC drain into?

internal thoracic

84

What are part of lymphatic?

axiallary

parasternal

intercostal

85

Where does the axillary artery drain into?

superficial thorax

86

Where does the parasternal artery drain into? Intercostal?

deep anterior thorax

deep posterior thorax

87

What is the order of vein artery and nerve superiorly?

VAN ( Vein -> Artery -> Nerve)

88

What is the transversalis fascia similar to?

endothoracic fascia of thorax

89

What is the fascia layer of abdomen?

Superficial

Deep

transversalis fascia

Peritoneum

90

What are the abdomen muscle?

4 anterior muscle and 4 posterior muscles

91

What is similar to the external abdominal oblique?

external intercostal muscle (inferomedially)

92

What does the external oblique aponeurosis contribute to?

linea alba

93

What is the linea alba?

insertion of external oblique. midline of the abs

94

What does the inguinal ligament do?

connect ASIS to the pubic tuberole

95

Where is the orign of external oblique? Insertion?

the ribs

linea alba

95

What action does external oblique do? Internal?

normal action

reverse action

96

Origin of internal oblique? Insertion?

fascia

ribs

97

What is the deepest abdomen muscle? Is this muscle same as to the intercostal muscle in thorax?

transversus abdominus

No because its different muscle from internal/external oblique

98

What is the function of abdomen?

support the abdominal viscera

compression

move the trunk

99

What actions does abdomen do?

compression (normal action and reverse action)

100

What is the insertion when you move your trunk?

costal attachment (ribs)

101

Does transverus abdominus help to move the trunk?

Nope

102

Internal Oblique: reverse action?

normal action?

abdominal compression

ipsilateral rotation

 

103

External oblique: reverse action?

Normal action

Contralateral Rotation

abdominal compression

104

What movement of the trunk?

bilateral: flex trunk

unilateral: lateral flexion/rotation

105

What movement does the rectus abdominus do?

pull the thorax toward the abdomen

106

What is rectus abdominus different from other muscle?

It doesn't run on fiber from origin to the insertion

107

What are the blood supplies for abdomen?

108

What are the nerve supply to abdominal flat muscle?

from the continuation of the thorax (anterior rami T7-T11 and subcostal)

ilioinguinal & iliohypogastric (L1)

Cutaneous (continuation of the bigger nerves)

109

What are the blood supplies for flat anterior?

lower posterior intercostal & subcostal

deep circumflex iliac

110

What are the blood supplies for rectus abdominus?

superior epigastric

inferior epigastic

111

Where does the superior epigastric come from?

internal thoracic artery

112

What made of rectus sheath?

External/Internal Oblique, Transversus abdominus and transverilis fascia

113

What is the inguinal canal? 

the passage in the anterior abdominal wall that having the spermatic cord or lig. of uterus going through

114

What does the cremaster reflex do? 

muscle contract and elevate testes

115

What is the origin of rectus abdominus?

insertion?

The pubic

the xiphoid process of thorax

116

What is the motor command nerve of cremaster reflex?

genitofemoral

117

What is the border of inguinal canal?

Floor: inguinal ligament

Wall(superficial): external abdominal oblique

Internal Wall (deep): transversalis fascia

Roof: Internal Ab oblique, transverse abdominus

118

What is the opening of inguinal canal?

transversus fascia (deep ring)

119

What is the exit of inguinal canal?

superficial ring (external abd oblique)

120

What happen to the indirect inguinal hernia(75%)?

it goes through the deep ring, through canal and out of the superfial ring follow testes

121

What happens in the direct (25%) inguinal hernia?

bypasses the deep ring creating a new hole in the transversalis fascia and out the superficial ring

122

What are the posterior muscles of abdomen?

quadratus lumborum

psoas major

iliacus

psoas minor

 

123

What actions does quadratus lumborum do?

respiration

unilateral action: side bending (lateral flexion)

reverse action (elevate hip/pelvis)

124

What is the origin of quadratus lumborum? insertion?

abdomen muscles (L1-4)

ribs (T12)

125

Where is the psoas major?

L2-3

126

What is the sensory nerve for cremaster circumflex?

ilioinguinal 

127

What made of iliopsoas? What is it powerful of?

psoas major and iliacus

hip flexion

128

What are the vestigeal muscle in posterior abdomen?

psoas minor

129

What are the blood supplies for posterior abdomen muscles?

lumbar artery and subcostal

130

What is the primary muscle of inspiration?

diaphragm

131

What is the origin of diaphragm? Insertion

the outer part of diaphragm (contractile)

the non-contractile tendon (central)

132

What are the region of diaphragm?

sternal (xiphoid process)

costal (lateral and medial articulate ligs) cartilage 7,8,9 and end of 10.12

lumbar (L1)

133

What does lateral arcuate ligament attach to?

quadratus lumborum

134

What does the medial arcuate ligament attach to?

psoas major

135

What made of the space for aorta?

cruna and median arcuate lig

136

Where is the aorta hiatus? esophageal hiatus? vena caval hiatus? 

T12 (thorax to abdomen)

T10 (head to abdomen)

T8 (abdomen to thorax)

137

What nerves innervate diaphragm?

C3-C5 phrenic nerves come together to innervate diaphragm

138

What activate the phrenic nerves?

brainstem respiratory nuclei

139

What are the blood supplies to diaphragm?

superior and inferior phrenic artery

140

Where is the superior phrenic art? inferior?

branch of the aorta above the diaphragm

branch of the aorta below the diaphragm

141

What are the blood supplies for abdomen?

subcostal artery

abdominal aorta

inferior vena cava

142

what are the types of abdominal aorta?

3 anterior visceral unpaired

4 lateral visceral paired

posterior parietal paired

 

143

Is subcostal artery branch off from aorta?

No, because it is below T12 and in abdomen, it is also considered to supply blood to abdomen

144

What are the 3 types anterior visceral unpaired?

celiac trunk

superior mesenteric

inf mesenteric

145

What does celiac trunk supply? sup. mesenteric? inf. mesenteric?

unpaired organ

intestine

colon

146

what are the 4 lateral visceral paired?

inf phrenic

middle suprarenal

renal

reproductive

147

What does inf phrenic supply? Middle suprarenal? renal? reproductive?

diaphragm

adrenal gland 

kidneys

ovaries/testes

148

What is the aneurysm? What does it lead to?

weaken wall of artery

blood clots

149

What are the posterior parietal paired?

4 lumbar and 1 median scaral

150

What are the terminal branches of abdominal aorta?

common iliacs (each on one leg)

151

What do lumbar arteries supply?

posterior abdominal wall muscle and spinal cord

152

Where are the common iliac arteries?

between L4/5

153

What are the branches of common iliac arteries?

external and internal iliac arteries

154

What are the internal iliac arteries?

super/infer gluteal and obturator

155

What are the branches of external iliac arteries?

deep circumflex iliac

inferior circumflex iliac

156

What does external iliac supply?

lower extremity (femoral artery)

157

Where are the internal/external iliac located?

S1

158

What does deep circumflex iliac supply? and Where does it branches from?

lower abdominals and it branches from external iliac artery

159

What does inferior epigastric supply?

rectus abdominus

160

Where does inferior vena cava go through? Where is it?

vena cava hiatus

L5

161

What does obturator arteries supply?

obturator internus & externus, hip joint

162

What is the external iliac equivalent to?

axillary arteries in arm

163

What does superior gluteal arteries supply?

gluteus maximus, medius & minimus; tensor fascia latae

164

What does inferior gluteal supply?

gluteus maximus, obturatus internus, quadratus femoris, superior hamstrings

165

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