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Timber harvesting activities with the greatest potential to impact waters of the State include (4)

  1. felling, yarding, and hauling of trees;
  2. road construction and reconstruction;
  3. watercourse crossing construction, reconstruction, or removal; and
  4. herbicide applications.


Excessive vegetation alteration, soil erosion, and sediment delivery associated with timber harvesting activities can impact the beneficial uses of water by (5)

  1. silting over fish spawning habitats;
  2. clogging drinking water intakes;
  3. filling in pools creating shallower, wider, and warmer streams, and increasing downstream flooding;
  4. creating unstable stream channels; and
  5. losing riparian habitat and function


Timber harvesting in the riparian zone can adversely affect stream temperatures by (1)

removing stream shading


lead agency responsible for regulating timber harvesting under the California Forest Practice Rules on private land

California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE)


Once a THP is submitted to CAL FIRE, Regional Water Board staff review the plan as a "Review Team" member, along with

the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, California Geological Survey, and CAL FIRE


Regional Water Board has two roles in the review of timber harvest plans, Non-industrial Timber Management Plans (NTMPs), and other commercial timber harvest projects on private lands

  1. issues permits (WDRs and waivers)
  2. Pre-harvest inspections


Discharges associated with timber harvesting activities typically include (2)

  1. sediment from erosion and/or
  2. increased water temperature from loss of riparian canopy



Nonindustrial Timber Management Plans


Regional Water Board staff may also perform the following activities to protect the beneficial uses of water and regulate timber harvest activities (7)

  1. attend active and post-harvest inspections of approved plans;
  2. Review HCPs
  3. perform and review watershed analyses;
  4. participate in meetings of the Board of Forestry and CAL FIRE;
  5. take enforcement actions and investigate complaints;
  6. assess conversions of timber lands to other land uses; and
  7. participate in TMDL development and implementation


Assembly Bill Number



AB funds, among other activities....

Multi-agency review of permitted Forest Practice Act activities


AB 1492, new requirements (1)

new annual reporting requirements


Components of annual reporting (4)

  1. workload
  2. staffing
  3. productivity
  4. environmental impacts of Forest Practice Act activities


purpose of annual reporting

give legislators and stakeholders the tools to evaluate efficiency and effectiveness of Ca timber programs and measure impact on environment


Organizations involved in THP review

  1. SWRCB
  2. CDFW -
  3. CALFIRE -
  4. DOC dept of conservation


5 Keys to understanding, evaluating, and managing ecological performance to facilitate long term improvements in watershed, wildlife, and fisheries health are:

  1. Metrics for watersheds
  2. Understanding of cureent ecological conditions
  3. Peer reviewed scientific information
  4. development of key indicators of ecological performance
  5. evaluation and reporting of the nexus between timber mgmt activities and mitigations and how this affects overall ecological health


After AB, the max term of THPs

7 years


Geographic Range of southern timber unit

south of Mad River


2 legal mechanisms RWQCB uses to evaluate timber harvest operations

  1. CALFIRE THP review process
  2. P/C authority--discharges


Ways in which RWQCB participates in timber harvesting evaluation (6)

  1. CALFIRE THP process
  2. inspecting harvest plans before, during and after harvesting
  3. evaluating workplans
  4. evaluating monitoring reports
  5. evaluating permit applications
  6. evaluating sediment control work


How discharges from timber operations are typically regulated on the north coast--

WDRs or waivers of WDRs



Non-industrial Timber Management Plans


How THPs in GDRCos timberlands are permitted

Under their Forest Management and Roads WDR, with a specific South Fork Elk River management plan


What included in WDRs (2)

  1. Annual rate of harvest limits
  2. sediment control and monitoring and reporting requirements


What may be adopted along with WDRs?

Monitoring and Reporting Program


Who acquired the PALCO timberlands in 2008?

Humboldt Redwood


Harvest limits may be based upon 2 models:

  1. landslide reduction model
  2. peak flow models


A landslide reduction model is used to limit

sediment discharges from harvest related landslides


A peak flow model is used to limit

peak flows from canopy removal


high hazard class are what areas typically?

riparian and steep streamside slopes


Harvest limit based upon Peak flow model in the north fork Elk is currently

264 clearcut equivalent acres


264 clearcut acres equals 528 acres of ________

selection siviculture


Types of inspections (5)

  1. ECP
  2. Annual road inspections
  3. Storm-triggered landslide inspections
  4. THP inspections
  5. Annual Tier 2 harvest-related landslide monitoring report


Types of water quality monitoring (4)

  1. stage-discharge
  2. suspended sediment concentration
  3. turbidity
  4. Aquatic trends monitoring


5 categories in aquatic trends monitoring

  1. pools
  2. LWD
  3. Temperature
  4. canopy
  5. sediment


Logging on private and corporate land in California is regulated by the _________ Act.  


What did this act establish?

1973 Z’berg-Nejedly Forest Practice Act.


Forest Practice Rules and a politically-appointed Board of Forestry to oversee their implementation


The California Department of Forestry (CALFIRE) works under the direction of 

the State board of forestry and fire protection


What's new, June 19, 2014

Water Drafting Amendments, 2014” adopted by the California Board of Forestry and Fire Protection went into effect. These emergency regulations are necessary due to the current drought conditions to conserve water for all beneficial uses including drinking water, and habitat for fish and wildlife. The emergency regulations requires Registered Professional Foresters planning timber operations to ensure that drafting operations do not remove water in quantities deleterious to fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water, including potential impacts to drinking water. 



Registered Professional Forester



Timberland Protection Zone


Board Technical Rule 
Addendum Number 2 is called the _____

Forest Practice Cumulative Impacts Assessment Process


When assessing cumulative impacts of a proposed project on any portion of a waterbody that is located 
within or downstream of the proposed timber operation and that is listed as water quality limited under 
Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act, the RPF shall

 assess the degree to which the proposed 
operations would result in impacts that may combine with existing listed stressors to impair a waterbody's 
beneficial uses, thereby causing a significant adverse effect on the environment  in consultation with the 
appropriate RWQCB


FPR 913.4 of the 5 Special Harvesting Methods, which requires the RPF to consult with RWQCB

1. Special Treatment Areas Prescriptions

2. Rehabilitation of Understocked Area Prescription

3. Fuelbreak/defensible space

4. Variable Retention

5. Aspen, meadow, and wet area restoration


There shall be no timber operations within the channel zone with the following exceptions (6)

1. Actions directed to improve salmonid habitat with review and concurrence by DFG.
2. Actions necessary for the construction, reconstruction, removal, or abandonment of approved watercourse crossings.
3.  Actions necessary for the protection of public health, safety and general welfare. This includes actions necessary to protect infrastructure facilities including, but not limited to, roads, bridges, powerlines, utilities, water drafting structures, homes, and other legally permitted structures.
4.  Actions to allow for full suspension cable yarding when necessary to transport logs through the channel zone.
5. Class III watercourses consistent with 14 CCR § 916.9 [936.9, 956.9] subsection (h)(7).
6.  Actions reviewed by the RWQCB which seek to correct or remediate adverse impacts to 
the beneficial uses of water. 



Three types of THP inspection

Pre, during, post


How the THP may use the RWQCB, to assess possible impacts to WLPZs, domestic water supply impacts from timber activities

The Director may require a post-harvest evaluation of the effectiveness of the mitigations and 
practices designed to protect the domestic water supply as a condition of plan approval. The Director shall require an evaluation at the request of the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, or any affected water purveyor, if the necessity for the evaluation is supported by substantial evidence in the record. 


Examples of situations and activities that could create possible impacts to domestic water supply (3)

1) potential land failures,

2) accelerated rate of road construction or 
harvesting within a watershed,

3) concentration or intensity of harvesting activity near streams or springs. (or watercourses)




Watercourse and Lake Protection Zone


Examples of situations and activities that could create possible impacts to WLPZs (4)

1) potential land failures,

2) accelerated rate of road construction or 
harvesting within a watershed,

3) concentration or intensity of harvesting activity near streams or springs. (or watercourses)

4) Potential for accelerated windthrow



trees uprooted or broken by wind


what procedures may an evaluation of impacts to WLPZs consist of?

(1) Procedures for effectiveness and implementation monitoring,
(2) Existing landowner monitoring programs, or
(3) Photographic monitoring


5 things that happen in 303(d) watersheds (FPR)

1.  prioritize watersheds where assessment or 
analysis may be needed, TMDL activities related to timber may occur, where existing rules are not sufficient, where monitoring needed

2) Report prepared pursuant to 1)

3) Where the Department has recommended that the adoption of watershed specific rules is needed, the Board shall consider that recommendation as a proposal for rulemaking under the Administrative Procedures Act and shall begin that process within 180 days following receipt of that report.
4) These watershed specific rules shall be developed in collaboration with the appropriate RWQCB, the landowner(s) or designee with land in the planning watershed, and other persons or groups within the watershed, and may also be incorporated into a TMDL implementation plan.
5) The watershed specific rules shall remain in effect until the water body has been removed from the 303(d) list, or that the Board finds, after consulting with the appropriate RWQCB, that timber operations are no longer a significant source of the pollutant or stressor that limits water quality in the listed water body.


Class I watercourses

fish always or seasonally present onsite, including habitat to sustain fish migration and spawning


Or provide domestic water supplies


Class II

  1. Fish always or seasonally present off-site within 1000 feet downstream and/or
  2. Aquatic habitat for non-fish aquatic species


Aquatic habitat indicators for Class II watercourses include 

free water, aquatic plants, water-dependent stages of aquatic insects and the physical condition of the channel and its position in the landscape.


Class III watercourses

  1. Do not have aquatic life present,
  2. capable of sediment transport to Class I and II waters under normal high water flow conditions.
  3. Most often ephemeral


"ASP" Rules

Anadromous Salmonid Protection rules


Class IV watercourses

man-made watercourses



trees with crowns forming the general level of the forest canopy and receiving full light from above, but comparitively little light from the sides.



trees with well-developed crowns extending above the general level of the forest canopy and receiving full light from above and partly from the sides


FPR "permanent water crossing"

constructed to accommodate the 50-year flood flow, and will remain in place when timber operations have been completed.


Predominant trees 

crowns are above the general level of the canopy and are significantly older than the surrounding stands



Program Timberland EIR


GWDR required plans

  1. ECP
  2. Fuel Management Plan (1320 gallons+)
  3. Inspection Plan


CSDS are defined as areas that meet all (3) of these criteria

  1. Discharging, or has the potential to discharge into State waters 
  2. Caused or affected by human activities
  3. May feasibly and reasonably responsd to prevention and minimization measures


When are winter timber operations allowed? (2)

  1. Approved winter period operating plan
  2. Cable, helicopter, and balloon yarding methods are exempt






Notice of Timber Operations


FPR Management measures that contribute to achieving sediment and temperature TMDL load allocations

  1. Long term uneven age management;
  2. The establishment of adequate riparian    protection zones
  3.  Adequate retention of riparian canopy;
  4.  Identification and treatment of existing    sediment discharge sources; and  
  5. Measures designed to prevent new discharge sources.    


How long NTOs are effective from the date of filing

one year


Waiver number for discharge resulting from timber operations on non-federal lands



2 types of selection cutting

  1. Single tree selection
  2. Group selection




Equipment Exclusion Zone

Equipment Limitation Zone


what is an HCP?

a required part of an application for an Incidental Take Permit, a permit issued under the United States Endangered Species Act 


What program requires a NTO?

A non-industrial timber management plan would.






General Waste
Discharge Requirements for Discharges Related to Timber Harvest Activities on Non‐Federal
Lands in the North Coast Region


General Waste
Discharge Requirements for Discharges Related to Timber Harvest Activities on Non‐Federal
Lands in the North Coast Region



Per R1-2004-0030, A project is considered complete when the following conditions have been met (5)

1. Timber harvest activities are complete.
2. Project site is stabilized (this includes such things as installation of road and skid trail drainage structures, soil stabilization measures in areas with exposed soil that have access to watercourse, etc.).
3. There is no potential for waste discharge from the Project area in violation of the Basin Plan or Order No. R1‐2004‐0030.
4. All elements of the technical reports have been completed (including compliance with the Erosion Control Plan). 

5. Earthen material and waste have been disposed of properly.


Origin of anadromous salmonid protection 

Forest Practice Rules


group selection

cutting several adjacent trees, but less than a patch and less than a clearcut.


The method normally used to estimate culvert sized that would accomodate the 100-year flow

3x the bankfull width


brow log

Large log laid beside the track or road at a log dump or landing to prevent logs from swinging or kicking back against the railroad cars or logging trucks.



Initial hauling of a log from the stump to a collection point.



Waiver of WDRs for Discharges Related to Timber Harvesting Activities on Non-Federal Lands in the North Coast Region


2 principal sources of sediment delivered to watercourses associated with timber operations

1) Unsurfaced logging roads

2) Watercourse crossings


Road-related sediment routes of delivery from the following physical processes (4):

- Rilling

- Gullying

- Mass failure

- Cutbank/Sideslope sloughing


4 main geomorphic provinces for forested areas

1. Klamath mountains

2. Sierra Nevada

3. Cascade

4. Coast ranges

The road erosion processes vary between these locations


Coast Range geomorphic characteristics (2)

1. Landslide-prone topography; highly erodible

2. Road erosion from landslides, fluvial erosion, and surface erosion


Cascade range geomorphic characteristics (2)

1. Relatively resistant volcanic rocks

2. Road erosion mainly from surface erosion


Sierra Nevada geomorphic characteristics (2)

1. Western slope is gently sloping; granitic, metamorphic, and volcanic rock with varying erosion potential

2. Road erosion mainly from surface erosion


Klamath Mountains geomorphic characteristics (2)

1. Considered a northern extension of Sierra Nevada, highly dissected topography.

2. Road erosion from surface erosion and landslides.


road segments that are particularly high risk for fine sediment delivery

un-surfaced located within 200 feet of streams that are connected to the channels with inboard ditches


One indicator of a Significant
Sediment Discharge

a visible
increase in turbidity to receiving
Class I, II, III, or IV waters


what does the rational runoff method do?

PREDICTS peak runoff rates from data on rainfall intensity and drainage-basin characteristics.

- Ideally for catchments less than 200 acres.


What is peak discharge?

Maximum rate of flow for a given discharge


1 in/hr of runoff from 1 acre is approximately equal to ______

1 cfs


When is the 2013 Road Rule package effective?

January 2015


3 types of road templates





Hydrologic Disconnection

The removal of direct routes of drainage or overland flow of road runoff to a watercourse or lake by directing drainage or overland flow onto stable portions of the forest floor to dissipate energy, facilitate percolation, and resist or prevent erosion or channelization


Where Roadway Hydrologic Connectivity is evaluated and treated (3)

1)  Road segments close to watercourses (i.e., in‐and‐around crossings)
2) Roads that accumulate and concentrate, rather than disperse, runoff
3) Roads and hillslopes with high erosion potential


Where is hydrologic disconnection the most critical?

The approaches to watercourse crossings


What does technical rule addendum #5 outline?

outlines procedures for the disconnection of road drainage from adjacent watercourses


Where Erosion Site Inventories required

Forest Practice Rules


Erosion Site Inventory; Three Steps

Evaluate for evidence of Significant Existing and Potential Erosion Sites

Develop Necessary and Feasible Treatments

Document Sites and Treatments


What is the RWQCB "Action Plan for Logging, Construction, and Associated Activities?"

Waste discharge prohibitions

1. The discharge of soil, silt, bark, slash, sawdust, or other organic and earthen material from any logging, construction, or associated activity of whatever nature into any stream or watercourse in the basin in quantities deleterious to fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses is prohibited. 
2. The placing or disposal of soil, silt, bark, slash, sawdust, or other organic and earthen material from any logging, construction, or associated activity of whatever nature at locations where such material could pass into any stream or watercourse in the basin in quantities which could be deleterious to fish, wildlife, or other beneficial 
uses is prohibited. 


What is the non-point source policy?

a state-wide policy that explains how existing permitting and enforcement tools will be used to address nonpoint sources of pollution. The NPS Policy states that all current and proposed NPS discharges must be regulated under waste discharge requirements (WDRs), waivers of 
WDRs, a basin plan prohibition, or some combination of these tools.


 the following temperature objectives apply 
to surface waters (3):

The natural receiving water temperature of intrastate waters shall not be altered unless it can be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Regional Water Board that such alteration in temperature does not adversely affect beneficial uses. 

At no time or place shall the temperature of any COLD water be increased by more than 5°F above natural receiving water temperature. 

At no time or place shall the temperature of WARM intrastate waters be increased more than 5°F above natural receiving water temperature. 


What does RUSLE2 estimate?

Soil loss, sediment yield, and soil charachteristics from rill and interill erosion resulting from rainfall and its associated overland flow


RUSLE2 limitations

1) Values cannot be aggregated based on conditions that vary along a slope length


Hortonian overflow happens when

When rainfall rate exceeds infiltration rate


where does sub-surface stormflow typically occur? (2)

on steep slopes with permeable soils overlying relatively impermeable bedrock or regolith.

Most common runoff process where humid climate with lot s of vegetation. Dominant runoff process in California forested areas.  




Where is the interception of subsurface stormflow common?

When the depth of your cutbank exceeds the depth of your soil