Topic 11a-11c Phylums and Groupings Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 11a-11c Phylums and Groupings Deck (80):
1

Chaetognatha

Arrow worms, ~70 species

Translucent predators in marine plankton

Interesting exception to the rule of taxonomic grouping

2

Ectoprocta
Platyhelminthes
Rotifera
Annelida
Nemertea
Phoronida
Brachiopoda
Mollusca

These are Lophotrochozoans

3

Priapulida
Loricifera
Kinoryncha
Nematomorpha
Nematoda
Onychophora
Tardigrada
Arthropoda

These are Ecdysozoans

4

What are the 3 larger groupings within Ecdysozoa?

Scalidiophora, Nematoda, Panarthropoda

5

Scalidiophora

All Scalidiophores are pseudocoelomate or acoelomate

Spiny, eversible proboscis used for feeding

Priapulida, (Loricifera + Kinorhyncha)

6

Nematoda

(Nematomorpha + Nematoda)

7

Panarthropoda

Onychophora, Tardigrada, Arthropoda

8

Priapulida

penis worms

9

Loricifera

telescopic bodies

10

Kinorhyncha

11-segmented body

11

Nematomorpha

~1 mm, similar to Nematoda but bigger

12

Nematoda

13

Onychophora

Predators with hollow legs and chitinous cuticles

14

Tardigrada

Water bears, hardy animals that like to live in lichens

15

Arthropoda

Jointed appendages, chitinous exoskeleton

16

What classes are in Myriapoda?

Chilopoda, Diplopoda

17

Chelicerata

Spiders, horseshoe crabs, sea spiders

Lack jaws, instead have chelicerae

2nd pair of appendages are pedipalps (pinchers or feelers)

Other appendages are 4 pairs of legs

18

Merostomata

Horseshoe crabs

Pedipalps look like legs

5 pairs of book gills, a carapace, and a telson (long "tail" spine)

19

Arachnida

Scorpions, spiders, mites, and ticks

Carnivorous

Chelicerae are fangs, often with poison gland

4 pairs of walking legs

20

4 orders of SP Chelicerata?

Opiliones, Scorpiones, Aranea, Acari

21

Opiliones

harvestmen, or daddy
longlegs

oval, compact body with extremely long, slender legs

most prey on insects and arachnids

females have an
ovipositor for laying eggs

22

Scorpiones

Scorpions

Most ancient group of terrestrial arthropods

Pedipalps are pinchers

23

Aranea

Spiders

2 body segments: prosoma and opisthosoma

Pedipalps involved in copulation to transfer sperm

Silk made from protein fluid forced from spinnerets (modified appendages at rear of opisthosoma)

24

Acari

Mites and ticks

Chelicerae fused into a capitulum for piercing

fused cephalothorax and abdomen

ticks are blood-feeding ectoparasites that transmit many
diseases in vertebrates

25

C. Chiapoda

centipedes, one pair of legs per body segment

carnivorous, mainly eating insects

body with head and multisegmented trunk

poison claws on first body segment

26

C. Diplopoda

millipedes, 2 pairs of legs per segment

inconspicuous head and multisegmented trunk

Have tagma (segments are a fusion of 2 ancestral segments)

27

SP. Crustacea

shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, crabs, isopods, barnacles

two pairs of sensory antennae as first appendages

biramous mandibulates

Larva is called a nauplius

28

decapods

shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, crabs

10 walking legs, exoskeleton usually reinforced with calcium carbonate

cephalothorax covered in carapace (a dorsal shield)

Some have swimmerets, uropods, and/or telson

29

SP. Hexapoda

uniramous mandibulates

paired jaws (mandibles) as mouthpart appendages after the antennae

all appendages are uniramous (“singlebranched”)

tracheal respiratory system

Malpighian tubules for excretion

30

C. Insecta

terrestrial and freshwater, few marine

3 body segments (head, thorax, abdomen), 3 pairs of legs on thorax only, 1 pair of antennae

specialized mouthparts, wings attach to middle and posterior segment of thorax (2 pair) or on middle segment only (1 pair)

Reduced second pairs of wings are halteres

Fat body serves as food reservoir

stages between molts called instars

process of molting (ecdysis) controlled
by molting hormone, or ecdysone

31

8 important C. Insecta orders

Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, Odonata, Isoptera

32

Chaetognatha

Arrow worms, ~70 species

Translucent predators in marine plankton

Interesting exception to the rule of taxonomic grouping

33

Ectoprocta
Platyhelminthes
Rotifera
Annelida
Nemertea
Phoronida
Brachiopoda
Mollusca

These are Lophotrochozoans

34

Priapulida
Loricifera
Kinoryncha
Nematomorpha
Nematoda
Onychophora
Tardigrada
Arthropoda

These are Ecdysozoans

35

What are the 3 larger groupings within Ecdysozoa?

Scalidiophora, Nematoda, Panarthropoda

36

Scalidiophora

All Scalidiophores are pseudocoelomate or acoelomate

Spiny, eversible proboscis used for feeding

Priapulida, (Loricifera + Kinorhyncha)

37

Nematoda

(Nematomorpha + Nematoda)

38

Panarthropoda

Onychophora, Tardigrada, Arthropoda

39

Mollusca

snails, slugs, clams, oysters, chitons, cuttlefish, octopuses

Bilateral, true coelom, differentiated head

3 main body parts of muscular foot, visceral mass, and mantle

Have a rasping tongue for feeding (radula)

Have tubular structures that gather wastes from coelom (nephridia)

Most have open circulatory system

40

Loricifera

telescopic bodies

41

Kinorhyncha

11-segmented body

42

Nematomorpha

~1 mm, similar to Nematoda but bigger

43

Nematoda

44

Onychophora

Predators with hollow legs and chitinous cuticles

45

Hirudinea

leeches

mostly freshwater parasites, predators, and scavengers

hermaphroditic with clitellum

usually dorsoventrally flattened

46

Arthropoda

Jointed appendages, chitinous exoskeleton

47

What classes are in Myriapoda?

Chilopoda, Diplopoda

48

Chelicerata

Spiders, horseshoe crabs, sea spiders

Lack jaws, instead have chelicerae

2nd pair of appendages are pedipalps (pinchers or feelers)

Other appendages are 4 pairs of legs

49

Merostomata

Horseshoe crabs

Pedipalps look like legs

5 pairs of book gills, a carapace, and a telson (long "tail" spine)

50

Arachnida

Scorpions, spiders, mites, and ticks

Carnivorous

Chelicerae are fangs, often with poison gland

4 pairs of walking legs

51

4 orders of SP Chelicerata?

Opiliones, Scorpiones, Aranea, Acari

52

Opiliones

harvestmen, or daddy
longlegs

oval, compact body with extremely long, slender legs

most prey on insects and arachnids

females have an
ovipositor for laying eggs

53

Scorpiones

Scorpions

Most ancient group of terrestrial arthropods

Pedipalps are pinchers

54

Aranea

Spiders

2 body segments: prosoma and opisthosoma

Pedipalps involved in copulation to transfer sperm

Silk made from protein fluid forced from spinnerets (modified appendages at rear of opisthosoma)

55

Acari

Mites and ticks

Chelicerae fused into a capitulum for piercing

fused cephalothorax and abdomen

ticks are blood-feeding ectoparasites that transmit many
diseases in vertebrates

56

C. Chiapoda

centipedes, one pair of legs per body segment

carnivorous, mainly eating insects

body with head and multisegmented trunk

poison claws on first body segment

57

C. Diplopoda

millipedes, 2 pairs of legs per segment

inconspicuous head and multisegmented trunk

Have tagma (segments are a fusion of 2 ancestral segments)

58

SP. Crustacea

shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, crabs, isopods, barnacles

two pairs of sensory antennae as first appendages

biramous mandibulates

Larva is called a nauplius

59

decapods

shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, crabs

10 walking legs, exoskeleton usually reinforced with calcium carbonate

cephalothorax covered in carapace (a dorsal shield)

Some have swimmerets, uropods, and/or telson

60

SP. Hexapoda

uniramous mandibulates

paired jaws (mandibles) as mouthpart appendages after the antennae

all appendages are uniramous (“singlebranched”)

tracheal respiratory system

Malpighian tubules for excretion

61

C. Insecta

terrestrial and freshwater, few marine

3 body segments (head, thorax, abdomen), 3 pairs of legs on thorax only, 1 pair of antennae

specialized mouthparts, wings attach to middle and posterior segment of thorax (2 pair) or on middle segment only (1 pair)

Reduced second pairs of wings are halteres

Fat body serves as food reservoir

stages between molts called instars

process of molting (ecdysis) controlled
by molting hormone, or ecdysone

62

8 important C. Insecta orders

Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, Odonata, Isoptera

63

Ectoprocta

Bryozoans, or moss animals

coelomate, aquatic, mostly marine

lophophore for feeding

secrete and live in a chitinous chamber (zoecium); may be reinforced with calcium carbonate

adults are sessile and colonial, communicate chemically
through pores in zoecia

some nonprotostome
characteristics: radial cleavage, secondary mouth, deuterostome-style coelom

64

Platyhelminthes

“flatworms”

acoelomate, ribbon-shaped, softbodied, flattened

most are parasitic, some are scavengers and carnivores

excretory system - small tubules lined with ciliated flame cells

nerve cords and simple central nervous system

hermaphroditic

65

Rotifera

Common, free-living freshwater pseudocoelmate animals

Some parasites, some terrestrial

jaws in pharynx, hydrostatic skeleton, ciliated, food-gathering organ on head (corona)

66

Annelida

polychaetes, earthworms, and leeches

coelomate

fluid inside coelom of each segment acts as a hydrostatic skeleton

partitions called septa

most have bristles of chitin (setae) used to anchor to a substrate

2 excretory systems per segment, (metanephridia)

67

Nemertea

ribbon worms

partially coelomate/partially acoelomate, similar to freeliving
flatworms

long muscular tube covered by a sheath, thrust out quickly to capture prey (proboscis)

often large (up to many meters)

excretory and nervous systems similar to flatworms. complete digestive system, closed circulatory system

68

Phoronida

horseshoe worms

coelomate

use lophophore for feeding, have U-shaped gut, secrete and live within a chitinous tube

69

Brachiopoda

“clams”

have two calcified shells

use lophophore for feeding

70

Mollusca

snails, slugs, clams, oysters, chitons, cuttlefish, octopuses,

71

Turbellaria

only free-living flatworms

ciliated epithelial cells for movement, have eyespots

pharynx (muscular throat) in feeding

72

Trematoda

flukes

all parasitic; resistant to digestive
enzymes and host immune responses

pathogen to humans: liver fluke

73

Cestoda

tapeworms

all parasitic; resistant to digestive enzymes and
host immune responses, absorb food through skin

scolex - attachment organ ("head")

proglottids - complete hermaphroditic

74

Polychaeta

polychaetes

unusual and colorful forms, filter feeders that live in burrows

more cephalized than other annelids, have paired, fleshy,
paddle-like flaps on most segments- used for moving and gas exchange (parapodia)

trochophore larvae

75

Oligochaeta

earthworms

hermaphroditic, join in opposite directions at the clitellum

76

Hirudinea

leeches

mostly freshwater parasites, predators, and scavengers

hermaphroditic with clitellum

usually dorsoventrally flattened

77

Polyplacophora

chitons

greatly reduced head, shell is segmented with 8 overlapping,
calcareous plates

foot used for locomotion
and for holding onto
substrates

78

Gastropoda

snails and slugs

horny plate that forms a covering “door” when the snail withdraws into its shell (operculum)

many are herbivorous

79

Bivalvia

clams, oysters, scallops, and mussels

strong adductor muscles pull shells together

Often have siphons, most are filter feeders

folded, ciliated gills, strong muscular foot

80

Cephalopoda

octopuses, squids, cuttlefish, and nautilus

highly developed nervous system: giant axons, elaborate eyes, complex behavior

foot modified into grasping tentacles with suckers