Topic 17: Excretory System (Osmoregulation and Excretion) Flashcards Preview

BIOL 1030 > Topic 17: Excretory System (Osmoregulation and Excretion) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 17: Excretory System (Osmoregulation and Excretion) Deck (38):
1

Greater osmotic pressure occurs in areas of

higher solute concentration

2

Osmoregulators hypotonic to environment constantly

lose water

3

Examples of osmoregulators hypotonic to environment

sea animals and terrestrials

4

Osmoregulators hypertonic to environment constantly

gain water

5

Examples of osmoregulators hypertonic to environment

Freshwater fish, amphibians, etc.

6

Number of nephrons in humans

1 M nephrons in humans

7

expanded part of ureter that receives urine from kidney

Renal pelvis

8

tuft of capillaries in kidney

Glomerulus

9

expanded end of nephron tubule surrounding glomerulus

Bowman’s capsule

10

returns 2/3 of water and NaCl from filtrate

tubule after bowman’s capsule; located in renal cortex

Proximal tubule

11

creates hypertonic interstitial fluid in medulla

water leaves in descending loop

Na+ and Cl- actively pumped out in ascending loop

tubule loop into medulla, unique to mammals and birds

Loop of Henle

12

H+, K+, other solutes actively pumped into filtrate from the blood

Water leaves filtrate because it’s hypertonicity compared to blood

tubule after loop of Henle; located in renal cortex

Distal tubule

13

water leaves filtrate due to its hypertonicity compared to blood

water permeable

drains from tubule at cortex, merges with other ducts in medulla, empties urine to renal pelvis

collecting duct

14

How much blood passes through kidneys each day

2000 L of blood

15

How much fluid is taken from blood at glomerulus

180 L fluid

16

Urine expelled each day

1-2 L

17

Flow of glomerular filtrate

nephron tubule at Bowman’s capsule

passes through proximal tubule

loop of Henle

distal tubule

exits as urine into collecting duct

18

Parts of nephron that are water permeable

distal tube and collecting duct

19

How is ammonia obtained

when amino acids are catabolized

20

method of excretion by secreting from gills

flushing

21

method of excretion by cartilaginous fishes, adult amphibians, and mammals

Detoxification

22

Method of excretion where ammonia is converted to urea

Detoxification

23

method of excretion by reptiles and birds

Insolubilization

24

Method of excretion where ammonia converted to uric acid (not water soluble, precipitates, little loss of water)

Insolubilization

25

How is uric acid obtained

nucleic acid degradation

26

enzyme that turns uric acid into allantoin

uricase

27

These animals secrete uric acid because they have no uricase

Humans, apes, and dalmations

28

what uric acid turns into after uricase enzyme

Allantoin

29

hormone released by posterior pituitary

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

30

Hormone that causes more water reabsorbed

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

31

Hormone that increases number of opened water channels in membranes of collecting ducts

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

32

hormone released in response to water conservation

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

33

hormone released by adrenal cortex

Aldosterone

34

hormone released in response to low [Na+] in blood

Aldosterone

35

hormone that increases blood volume (greater retention of salt and water)

Aldosterone

36

hormone that increases Na+ reabsorption in distal tubules

Aldosterone

37

released by right atrium when stretched by increased blood volume

Atrial natriuretic hormone

38

Decreases blood volume (greater excretion of salt and water)

Atrial natriuretic hormone