Topic 15: Animal Nutrition and Digestive System Flashcards Preview

BIOL 1030 > Topic 15: Animal Nutrition and Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Topic 15: Animal Nutrition and Digestive System Deck (76):
1

Carbs convert to ______

monosaccharides

2

Proteins convert to ______

amino acids

3

Lipids convert to ______

fatty acids and glycerol

4

fatty acids and glycerol are _____ energy sources and _____ building blocks

(major energy source)
(major building block)

5

amino acids are _____ energy sources and _____ building block

(minor energy source)
(major building block)

6

monosaccharides are _____ energy sources

(major energy source)

7

Intracelluar digestion has _____ digestive cavity

cells _______ food in sponges

No digestive cavity

cells take in and break down their own food (sponges)

8

Break down carbs

Amylases

9

Break down proteins

Acid digestion and proteases

10

Break down lipids

Emulsification by bile and lipases

11

organ with upper skeletal muscle, lower smooth muscle

Esophagus

12

Location of one sphincter in early digestive process

between esophagus and stomach

13

main function is acid digestion of proteins

Stomach

14

secrete HCl

parietal cells

15

secrete pepsinogen

chief cells

16

What cells are located in mucosa of stomach?

Parietal and chief cells

17

Pepsinogen function and source

Chief cells secrete pepsinogen which are activated to become pepsin and hydrolyze proteins

18

controls movement of chime from stomach to small intestine

Pyloric sphincter

19

mixture of gastric juice and food

chyme

20

main function is terminal digestion and absorption

Small intestine

21

3 parts of small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, then ileum

22

active digestion occurs at this part (in small intestine)

Duodenum

23

food absorption into bloodstream at this part (small intestine)

Jejunum and ileum

24

consists of bicarbonate, amylases, proteases, and lipases

Pancreatic juice

25

emulsifies fat

comes from the liver and may be stored in gall bladder

Bile

26

cytoplasmic projections of villi

Microvilli

27

responsible for final disaccharide digestion

Brush border enzymes

28

_____ and _____ pass into blood capillaries with active transport

Monosaccharides and amino acids

29

Monosaccharides and amino acids pass into ___________ with ____________

blood capillaries with active transport

30

Food in bloodstream is first taken to ________

liver

31

free fatty acids and monoglycerides convert into this (in epithelial cells)

Triglycerides

32

Where are triglycerides made

epithelial cells

33

triglycerides combined with proteins

Chylomicrons

34

these pass into lymphatic capillaries (enter bloodstream at neck veins)

Chylomicrons

35

breaks down polysaccharides into smaller polysaccharides or maltose (in oral cavity)

Salivary amylase

36

Salivary amylase breaks down _______ into _______ or _______

smaller polysaccharides or maltose (in oral cavity)

37

break down polysaccharides into disaccharides or maltose

Pancreatic amylases

38

Pancreatic amylases break down ______ into ______ or _______

polysaccharides into disaccharides or maltose

39

breaks down proteins into small polypeptides

Pepsin

40

Pepsin breaks down ______ into _______

proteins into small polypeptides

41

break down polypeptides into smaller ones

Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin

42

Pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin break down ______ into _______

polypeptides into smaller polypeptides

43

breaks down small polypeptides into amino acids

Pancreatic carboxpeptidase

44

Pancreatic carboxpeptidase breaks down ______ into ______

small polypeptides into amino acids

45

break small peptides into amino acids

Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase

46

Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase break _______ into ______

small peptides into amino acids

47

break down

Pancreatic nucleases

48

Pancreatic nucleases break down ______ into ______

DNA and RNA into nucleotides

49

break down nucleotides into nucleosides

Nucleotidases

50

Nucleotidases break down ______ into ______

nucleotides into nucleosides

51

break down nucleosides into nitrogenous bases, sugars, and phosphates

Nucleosidases and phosphatases

52

Nucleosidases and phosphatases break down ______ into ______

nucleosides into nitrogenous bases, sugars, and phosphates

53

break down fat globules into fat droplets

Bile salts

54

Bile salts break down ______ into ______

fat globules into fat droplets

55

breaks down fat droplets into glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides

Pancreatic lipase

56

Pancreatic lipase breaks down ______ into ______

fat droplets into glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides

57

Pepsin is located in the

stomach

58

Dipeptidases, carboxypeptidase, and aminopeptidase are located in the

brush border

59

Nucleotidases are located in the

brush border

60

Nucleosidases and phosphatases are located in the

brush border

61

Bile salts are located in the

duodenum

62

Lipase is located in the

duodenum

63

Begins with cecum, ends in rectum

Has no villi

Main function is refuse compactor

Large intestine

64

Digestive function of large intestine

Only 4% of all absorption

65

Main absorptions of large intestine

sodium, vitamin K, and water

66

fermentation chamber or storage in some animals

First part of large intestine

Cecum

67

All vertebrates except _______ have a cloaca

eutherian mammals

68

Cause feces to pass into rectum

Peristaltic contractions

69

Termites digest cellulose with

Protozoan aid

70

Rodents and lagomorphs digest cellulose with

Aid of bacteria in their cecum

71

Only animal that has cellulase

silverfish

72

have a divided stomach with cecum (fermentation vat) where protozoans and bacteria aid cellulose digestion

Ruminants (cows, deer, etc.)

73

Source of all vitamin K for mammals

Intestinal bacteria

74

Vitamin K is needed for

blood clotting

75

lysine, tryptophan, threonine, methionine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine (histidine in children)

Essential amino acids in humans

76

Essential minerals in humans

Ca, P, I, Co, Zn, Mn, Mo, Se, Fe