Flashcards in Topic 2 - Civil Rights 1965-70 Deck (22):
What campaign did King launch to change voting rights?
Selma launched in March 1965. Half of selma's 260k pop were black. Authorities responded with violence (just what King wanted)
What was "Bloody Sunday" and what did it achieve?
People walked from Selma to Montgomery and they were met with huge violence from clubs and tear gas. Achieved 1965 voting rights act
What was the Nation of Islam (NOI)?
An organisation that wanted a Separate "nation of Islam"
What did Malcolm X believe in?
The separation of blacks and whites. Believed black's created by god and everyone else by the devil
What were the similarities and differences between MLK and Malcolm X?
Malcolm wanted separation and MLK did not, They both used similar methods to get views across however Malcolm did not discourage violence
What did Malcolm X achieve?
Drew attention to ghetto problem
Contributed in black pride
Contributed in rise of black power
Who were the black power?
Developed to tackle the ghetto issue, poor housing, poor schools and police brutality
How were black power different from Malcolm X?
Wanted eventual intergration
Who were the Black panthers?
Small group of 5,000 members who became black powers biggest advocate
What did the black panthers try to do? And how successful were they?
End police brutality - not very
Tackle ghetto issue - medium (40 clinics set up advising on health, welfare and legal rights)
Increase black pride - very (founded liberation summer schools which promoted black history)
Who was James Meredith?
1st ever black American to go to university of Mississippi. He organised a march against discrimination and as a result was shot and hospitalised by racists
How did Meredith show there was a divide in civil rights parties?
His March was taken up by Stokely Carmichael's SNCE and Kings SCLC. Carmichael was arrested and came out of prison chanting 'black power' as opposed to kings 'freedom now'
What did ceased Chavez wish to achieve?
Equal rights for Latino's
What were some of the problems Latino's faced?
80% lived in ghettos
What was wrong with LULAC?
Not as big as NAACP and many workers were unskilled and wanted to return to Mexico so avoided it
How did Chavez try to achieve his aims?
Created United farm workers (UFW) during the depression. They organised a grape boycot in 1966 in which 17 million took part however grower opposition, mechanisation and immigration Weakend UFW
What was wrong with the 1964 civil rights bill?
Many African Americans still couldn't vote
What was the ghetto problem?
-poor housing in majority black communities. Blacks could not afford to move elsewhere and White prejudice made it hard to do so
-poor education; in 1960's only 32% of black kids graduated from high school compared t 56% of whites
What were the ghetto riots?
-Watts riots, LA 1965
-In august black mobs crying "long live Malcolm X" set fire to several blocks of stores in Watts
-Alerted King. He began to define freedom in terms of economic equality and planned his Chicago campaign
What were the reasons for the Chicago campaign?
-de facto segregation and economic inequality existed in the ghettos
-many ghetto residents believed that civil rights leaders did not understand their problems and were no help in solving them
What happened in the Chicago campaign?
-3 million pop included 700k blacks who suffered unemployment, housing and education problems in the ghetto. -July-Sept 1966 Kings family lived in Ghetto and found their relationship rapidly deteriorated
-Campaign aimed to draw attention to the appalling living conditions in ghettos and difficulties of moving out. King led reporters around rat infested houses which had no air con or heating and marches into white districts where blacks did not buy homes