Flashcards in Topic 4 - Social Change Deck (12):
What political advancements showed that women's status had improved by 1992?
-Ford appointed first female member of cabinet and O'conor was first female Supreme Court justice. 1992 Dianne Feinstein and Barbara boxer were both elected to the senate as California's reps
-Clearance Thomas case revitalised women campaigners who had been relatively quiet. Anita Hill who accused Thomas of rape had her testimony dismissed by the 96% male senate
-Unprecedented number of women stood for local, state and national office in 1992 and as a result the number of women elected doubled; in 1993 there 47 out of 435 members of congress that were women
What social advancements showed that women's status had risen by 1992?
-NOW campaigned for equal pay and job opportunities
-Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protected Americans from gender discrimination in educational programs
-Equal Employment Opportunity commission stated that sexual harassment was a form of sex discrimination. More people were therefore prosecuted
-Working women were able to achieve their potential
-Child support recovery act (1992) ensured delinquent fathers paid child support
What showed that women's status had not risen by 1992?
-still inferior to males
-Held less important roles than males
-Despite gaining abortion rights many Supreme Court rulings reversed progress
-Geraldine Ferraro ran for president in 1984 but faced a huge amount of sexist abuse high listing how far women still needed to go
-Still under represented in politics
-Many claimed working mothers took men's jobs and tore families apart as they did not look after them properly
What political advancements showed that black Americans had increased their status by 1992?
-Reagan appointed a black cabinet member
-NAACP lawyers won 100's of cases that led to changes to congressional districts and voting systems that assisted the election of 1000's of black officials by the 1990's
-Black congressmen up from 45 in 1990 to 69 in 1992
-Black mayors on rise in cities such as Chicago (1984)
-1998 Jesse Jackson made serious run for democratic nomination for president
What social advancements showed that black Americans had increased their status by 1992?
-Affirmative action helped increase number of ethnic minorities in collage. In 1983 only 38% of black Americans went to uni but in 1992 this was at 51.2%
-Income rose by 20% from 1981-92
-Affirmative action increased economic status of ethnic minorities as it increased there employability
-Integrated housing, schools (1988 43% of black schoolchildren attended predominantly white schools) and marriages were very high during 90's
-White Americans admired and enjoyed what black artists and athletes such as Oprah, Jordan ($21 million from endorsements in 1992) and MJ. 1985 19 out of 50 top albums were by black artists
-Glory foods became popular selling traditional African American food
-Jerry Rubin founded yippies, joined black power and participated in anti war protests during 1960's. In 1980 he became a Wall Street stock broker and established the business and networking salons
What showed that Black Americans had not increased their status by 1992?
-1988 Jesse Jackson had to step down from democratic nominee due to anti Semitic statements
-Rarely won statewide elections. White people did not want to be represented by black Americans
-Police brutality still common
-Poorer than white citizens with 30% living in poverty between 1970-90
-High unemployment and overcrowded ghettos still common which led to lower life expectancy
-Affirmative action programs limited by Supreme Court in City of Richmond Vs Croson Company
-1990 civil rights bill vetoed that would of provided new legal remedies for anyone who suffered workplace mistreatment
-Southern schools slowly re-segregated after 1980
-Disproportionate number of black Americans in jail
What political advancements showed that status was improving for Hispanics?
-Hispanic organisations such as the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) became more effective in there lobbying
-Reagan appointed first Hispanic cabinet member in 1989 and the number of Hispanics in the House of Representatives rose from 5 in 1970 to 10 in 1980 and 17 in 1992
What social advancements showed that the status of Hispanics was rising by 1992?
-Number of Native Americans with a collage education increased by 1/3
-income rose from 10.5k a year in 1975 to 16.6k in 1981
What showed that Hispanics had not increased their status by 1992?
-Faced police brutality
-Consisted of only 5% of drivers on roads by 70% of those pulled over
-Poorer than white citizens
-Most of 368 federal judges Reagan appointed were were young white males, only 7 were black, 15 were Hispanic and 2 Asian
-1986 Californian voters expressed their decreased tolerance of the hispanicisation of the state by approving proposition 63 (Making English official language of California)
What Politcal advancements showed that native Americans Had improved their status by 1992?
-Supreme court supported Native American Tribal sovereignty and tax powers in Marion (1982)
What social advancements showed that the status of native Americans had improved by 1992?
-Number of native Americans with college education increased by 20% between 1970-90
-Smithsonian institute's National Museum of Art's show 'The west as America' Emphasised white mistreatment of Native Americans
-Native American Grave protection and reparation act (1990) enabled native Americans to retrieve remains of ancestors from museums and universities