Topic 4 - Cultural Challenge Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 4 - Cultural Challenge Deck (24):

What challenges did young white males try to overcome?

-Conservative views on sexual and social freedoms, drug-taking and race


Evidence to show How young white males tackled their challenge?

-Heavy metal was on the rise in 1980's with groups such as Van Halen being very popular
-1988 11/50 best selling albums were metal and its market share in popular music rose from 8% in 1983 to 20% in 1984
-'Headbangers ball' was a show on MTV that became immensely popular


What challenges did gang cultures and young black males try to tackle?

The disproportionate number of black Americans in jail and discrimination they still faced


What evidence shows the extent of young black males fight against their challenge?

-Emergence of Hip Hop and rap in 1971
-Generational divide was forming (older black communities disassociated itself with younger ones as they felt the music was too extreme). Music ignored by black radio which was ran by more affluent black Americans
-The music was sexist (Ice cube) bigoted (Public Enemy) and violent (N.W.A)


What happened to rap music in 1988?

-White rappers launched Stop the Violence Campaign
-Rap Artists such as MC hammer and Vanilla Ice demonstrated how rap was becoming mainstream and less focused on the original issues of black discrimination
-Many black rapper despised white ones for ruining the genre


Who were the PMRC and what was their challenge to culture?

-Parents Music resource centre, setup up by wives of influential Washington politicians
-Concerned that song lyrics were sexually explicit, violent or glorifying drugs and alcohol
-Mainly against heavy metal, princes 'nikki' and madona's 'like a virgin'


Evidence to show the PMRC were tackling their challenges?

-Music industry eventually accepted a voluntary rating system in the late 1980's due to great pressure from Washington and the publicity of several highly publicised suicides
-Jello Biafra (Leader of band dead Kennedy's) was arrested in 1986 for distrusting harmful material to a minor (Young LA girl bought the groups Frankenchrist album which had a poster of 10 peni)


Who were the Non oppositional youth culture and what were their challenges to culture?

-Followed more traditional route
-They were rebelling against the changes that were occurring
-They did not push for change but did not refuse some aspects of it such as new technology


Evidence of Non oppositional Youth cultures attempt to tackle their challenge?

-Many developed into "yuppies" (Young Upwardly Mobile Urban Professionals) who liked making money, BMW's, designer casual gear, gourmet food and high tech gadgets
-Wanted a modern take on traditional values of hard work and dedication


How did personal computers impact popular culture?

-From 1981 IBM sold small desktop PC's for use in office and home
-1/4 of American house gods possessed a PC by early 1990's
-Revolutionised way Americans produced, received and exchanged info


How did remote controls and VCR's impact on popular culture?

-Remotes gave user more choice as to what was to be viewed therefore personalising entertainment
-By 1990 3/4 of houses owned VCR's therefore enabling them to record shows, rent films or play games
-Entertainment was personalised


How did Cassettes and CD's impact on popular culture?

-1970's cassettes became popular as you could record your own music on them or buy pre record ones and play them on handheld devices
-late 1970's CD came on the market which offered better sound and ease of use. Portable and offered option of sole entertainment
-Americans could access entertainment that they wanted when they wanted


What impact did the growth of cable TV have on popular culture?

-By 1990 90% of houses had cable
-Cable contributed to the fragmentation of society as it catered to markets divided by age, education, race and gender
-Sport channels such as ESPN were aimed at sport fanatics, CNN gave 24 hour news coverage, Rev Pat Roberton had a family channel promoting traditional views, home shopping networks advertised consumer goods, MTV aired non-top music from 1981 and pron was more available
-Far more sex and violence on TV


What impact did MTV have on popular culture?

-85% of predominantly white suburban audience as aged between 12-34
-Fastest growing cable channel ever and Inspired development of other music channels
-MTV faced issues of racism (Originally whites ruled channel until MJ came along) and sexism (Music focused on appealing young white men such as Madonna's like a virgin)
-Young Americans were given sense of empowerment that came with oppositional stance


What did young gay men campaign for?

-Equal status in society and for AIDS to be seen as serious threat and not just a gay virus


1)What was AIDS?
2)Evidence to show Young gay men were tackling their challenge?

1) 46k people died from AIDS by 1989 and many called it the gay plague. Disease transmitted through blood transfer that destroys immune system
-1987 ACT UP (AIDS collation to unleash power) followed up the first gay pride parade in NYC with a demonstration that demanded equal rights and more research into AIDS
-Until Ryan White care act of 1990 which granted $220 million to help victims little was done to help AIDS suffers


Why did many people campaign about TV and film between 1981-92?

-Did not like the depiction of sex, violence homosexuality and depiction of war in these mediums


How was homosexuality seen in film and TV?

-Audiences remained wary of films and TV on homosexuality
-1981 NBC considered a sitcom about a gay surrogate farther but got cold feet and the program was pulled
-Hollywood also reluctant to realise films on homosexuality with the 1989 film Longtime Companion being the first widely released movie to deal with AIDS and it was not very popular despite good reviews


How was sex seen on film and TV?

-Reagan felt there was too much sex on TV however sexual content still increased
-Basic instinct 1992
-Beverly hills, 90210 (1990-2000) associated being sexually active with being cool
-Fresh Prince of bel air (1990-96) portrayed being a virgin as embarrassing
-Film 'last temptation of Christ' went too far and bought mass protest from RR, and concerned women for America. Movie was largely boycotted and made little profit


How was violence depicted in film and TV?

-Hollywood and TV were criticised for increased violence in years 1981-92 with movies such as Robo Cop and Die Hard coming under the most scrutiny
-Silence of the Lambs possibly went too far. It got huge critical praise but many were creeped out by it
-A team raised issue on weather cartoonish violence was acceptable. No blood was spilt but others felt it still promoted violence
-Cable showed violent TV films causing bill Clinton to state that they should be deglamorising sex and violence


How was War depicted on TV?

-Favourite theme for many
-Platoon (1986) was an anti war film
-Rambo was very pro war. Veitnam vertebrae rescued prisoners of war from Vietnamese who were presented as in human. The male is defiantly the dominant character


What challenges did women try to tackle in the era?

-They fought to end the stereotypical depiction of women in films and TV
-Some films were pro feminist but many films such as fatal attraction were against the independent women


What evidence is there to show of women's struggle and success in tackling their challenge?

-Abortion was shown to be bad in many films
-When the women was independent it was in defiance to her family
-Good mother role was still being depicted
-Cable companies wanted to make more values by appealing to majority conservative values
-The show 'Roseanna' (1988-97) depicted the struggle of women in this era. Heads were turning and people started to think female role was outdated


Cultural challenge conclusions?

-1980's was decade of culture wars
-America became hugely divided
-Society was transformed forever as RR were unable to stop the change
-sex, music, violence, film and TV were all rapidly evolving with the times and tastes of American culture