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Flashcards in Topic 3 Deck (49)
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1

Macronutrients

Nutrients that provide the energy necessary to maintain bodily functions during rest, and diverse physical activity.
Carbohydrates
Protein
Lipids (Fats)
Water

2

Micronutrients

Facilitate energy transfer and tissue synthesis.
Fiber
Vitamins
Minerals

3

Carbohydrates

Functions:
Provide fuel for the body
Acts as an energy storage
Breaks down fatty acids and prevents ketosis (elevated level of ketone in the blood)
Sources:
Pasta
Cereals
Quinoa

4

Proteins

Proteins
Functions:
Structure
Transport
Protection
Fuel for the body
Repair and growth of muscles and tissues
Sources:
Meat
Fish
Eggs
Dairy

5

Lipids

Functions:
Fuel
Energy storage
Backup energy
Protects vital organs (heart, lungs, liver etc..)
Thermal insulation (cold climates)
Sources:
Meat
Dairy
Milk

6

Water

Functions:
A medium for biochemical reactions
Transport
Thermoregulation
Excretion
Lubrication
Prevents dehydration
Sources:
Beverages (Drinks)
Fruit
Vegetables

7

Fiber

Functions:
Helps avoid constipation
Bulk up consumed food
Sources:
Celery
Beans
Nuts
Rice
Cereal

8

Vitamins

Functions:
Energy release from macronutrients
Increases metabolism
Helps inspire healthy bones and blood
Increases immune function
Promotes eyesight and healthy skin
Sources:
Fruits
Vegetables
Fatty Fish (Salmon)

9

Minerals

Functions:
Mineralization of bones and teeth
Promotes blood oxygen transport
Helps immune/defense system
increases metabolism
Helps muscle function
Regulates cellular metabolism

10

Chemical composition of glucose molecule

Contains the elements
C = Carbon (6)
H = Hydrogen (12)
O = Oxygen (6)
in a 1:2:1 ratio

11

Explain how glucose molecules can combine to form disaccharides and polysaccharides

Condensation reaction: the linking of a monosaccharide to another monosaccharide, disaccharide or polysaccharide by the removal of a water molecule.

Monosaccharide + mono/di/poly = di/poly + water (bye-product)

12

State the composition of a molecule of triacylglycerol

- Glycerol is an alcohol with the formula C3H8O3 - it contains three hydroxyl groups (OH)

- Fatty acids are long chain hydrocarbons containing carboxyl (COOH) group at one end

- An ester bond is formed when a condensation reaction occurs between one of the OH groups of the glycerol, and the COOH group of the fatty acid. - this produced one molecule of water.

- Two more fatty acids bond to the remaining OH groups on the glycerol, creating two more water molecules

13

Saturated Fatty Acids:

- Have no double bonds between individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain

14

Unsaturated Fatty Acids:

- Contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms within the fatty acid chain

15

chemical composition of a protein molecule

C: 1
H: 1
O: 1
N: 1

16

Essential amino acids

cannot be made by the body. As a result, they must come from food.

17

non-essential amino acids

are produced by bodily systems.

18

approximate energy content per 100g of carbohydrate, lipid and protein

Carbohydrates: 1,760 kJ per 100 g
Proteins: 1,720 kJ per 100 g
Fats: 4,000 kJ per 100 g

19

Discuss how the recommended energy distribution of the dietary macronutrients differs between endurance athletes and non-athletes

•Depending on intensity and duration of exercise, an athlete may regularly expend twice as much energy as a sedentary person. Furthermore, many sports are performed in environments that can increase energy expenditures (cold, humidity, altitude).
•Consequently, sporting activities can involve additional energy expenditure ranging from around 1,000 kilocalories/day (dancing, martial arts) to as much as 7,000 kilocalories/day (long-distance cycle races, endurance treks).
•During prolonged, aerobic exercise, energy is provided by the muscle glycogen stores – which directly depend on the amount of carbohydrates ingested.
•This is not the only reason why dietary carbohydrates play a crucial role in athletic performance; they have also been found to prevent the onset of early muscle fatigue and hypoglycaemia during exercise.

•By keeping carbohydrate intake high, an athlete therefore replenishes his glycogen energy stores, and reduces the risk of rapid fatigue and a decline in performance.
•At the same time, carbohydrate intake should not be so high as to drastically reduce the intake of fat, because the body will use fat as a substrate once glycogen stores are depleted.
•The use of body protein in exercise is usually small, but prolonged exercise in extreme sports can degrade muscle, hence the need for amino acids during the recovery phase.

20

Metabolism

all the biochemical reactions that occur within an organism, including anabolic and catabolic reactions

21

Anabolism

energy requiring reaction whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones

22

Catabolism

chemical reaction that break down complex organic compounds into simpler ones, with the net release of energy

23

anaerobiccatabolism

the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler compounds, with the release of energy, in the absence of oxygen

24

State what glycogen is and its major storage sites

Glucose is converted into glycogen when the glucose levels are too high - glycogen is stored glucose
Glycogen is a much-branched polymer of glucose (polysaccharide)
The main stores of glycogen in the body are in the liver and muscles.

25

State the major sites of triglyceride storage

adipose tissue (fat) and skeletal muscle

26

glycogenolysis

the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose and its release into the blood

27

lipolysis

the breakdown of stored lipid (and the subsequent breakdown into respiration)

28

Define cell respiration

The controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells.
ATP = chemical compound which provides energy for muscle contraction
ATP is the body's energy currency
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins (MACRO nutrients) can all be used as fuel in cellular respiration

29

Aerobic respiration

- forms 38 adenosine triphosphate molecules per glucose molecule metabolized
- results in more energy for use by the cell
- requires the presence of oxygen

30

Anaerobic respiration

- forms 2 adenosine triphosphate molecules per glucose molecule metabolized
- results in less energy for use by the cell
- occurs in the absence of oxygen and at low concentrations of oxygen