Flashcards in Topic 3 Deck (49)
Nutrients that provide the energy necessary to maintain bodily functions during rest, and diverse physical activity.
Facilitate energy transfer and tissue synthesis.
Provide fuel for the body
Acts as an energy storage
Breaks down fatty acids and prevents ketosis (elevated level of ketone in the blood)
Fuel for the body
Repair and growth of muscles and tissues
Protects vital organs (heart, lungs, liver etc..)
Thermal insulation (cold climates)
A medium for biochemical reactions
Helps avoid constipation
Bulk up consumed food
Energy release from macronutrients
Helps inspire healthy bones and blood
Increases immune function
Promotes eyesight and healthy skin
Fatty Fish (Salmon)
Mineralization of bones and teeth
Promotes blood oxygen transport
Helps immune/defense system
Helps muscle function
Regulates cellular metabolism
Chemical composition of glucose molecule
Contains the elements
C = Carbon (6)
H = Hydrogen (12)
O = Oxygen (6)
in a 1:2:1 ratio
Explain how glucose molecules can combine to form disaccharides and polysaccharides
Condensation reaction: the linking of a monosaccharide to another monosaccharide, disaccharide or polysaccharide by the removal of a water molecule.
Monosaccharide + mono/di/poly = di/poly + water (bye-product)
State the composition of a molecule of triacylglycerol
- Glycerol is an alcohol with the formula C3H8O3 - it contains three hydroxyl groups (OH)
- Fatty acids are long chain hydrocarbons containing carboxyl (COOH) group at one end
- An ester bond is formed when a condensation reaction occurs between one of the OH groups of the glycerol, and the COOH group of the fatty acid. - this produced one molecule of water.
- Two more fatty acids bond to the remaining OH groups on the glycerol, creating two more water molecules
Saturated Fatty Acids:
- Have no double bonds between individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain
Unsaturated Fatty Acids:
- Contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms within the fatty acid chain
chemical composition of a protein molecule
Essential amino acids
cannot be made by the body. As a result, they must come from food.
non-essential amino acids
are produced by bodily systems.
approximate energy content per 100g of carbohydrate, lipid and protein
Carbohydrates: 1,760 kJ per 100 g
Proteins: 1,720 kJ per 100 g
Fats: 4,000 kJ per 100 g
Discuss how the recommended energy distribution of the dietary macronutrients differs between endurance athletes and non-athletes
•Depending on intensity and duration of exercise, an athlete may regularly expend twice as much energy as a sedentary person. Furthermore, many sports are performed in environments that can increase energy expenditures (cold, humidity, altitude).
•Consequently, sporting activities can involve additional energy expenditure ranging from around 1,000 kilocalories/day (dancing, martial arts) to as much as 7,000 kilocalories/day (long-distance cycle races, endurance treks).
•During prolonged, aerobic exercise, energy is provided by the muscle glycogen stores – which directly depend on the amount of carbohydrates ingested.
•This is not the only reason why dietary carbohydrates play a crucial role in athletic performance; they have also been found to prevent the onset of early muscle fatigue and hypoglycaemia during exercise.
•By keeping carbohydrate intake high, an athlete therefore replenishes his glycogen energy stores, and reduces the risk of rapid fatigue and a decline in performance.
•At the same time, carbohydrate intake should not be so high as to drastically reduce the intake of fat, because the body will use fat as a substrate once glycogen stores are depleted.
•The use of body protein in exercise is usually small, but prolonged exercise in extreme sports can degrade muscle, hence the need for amino acids during the recovery phase.
all the biochemical reactions that occur within an organism, including anabolic and catabolic reactions
energy requiring reaction whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones
chemical reaction that break down complex organic compounds into simpler ones, with the net release of energy
the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler compounds, with the release of energy, in the absence of oxygen
State what glycogen is and its major storage sites
Glucose is converted into glycogen when the glucose levels are too high - glycogen is stored glucose
Glycogen is a much-branched polymer of glucose (polysaccharide)
The main stores of glycogen in the body are in the liver and muscles.
State the major sites of triglyceride storage
adipose tissue (fat) and skeletal muscle
the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose and its release into the blood
the breakdown of stored lipid (and the subsequent breakdown into respiration)
Define cell respiration
The controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells.
ATP = chemical compound which provides energy for muscle contraction
ATP is the body's energy currency
Carbohydrates, fats and proteins (MACRO nutrients) can all be used as fuel in cellular respiration
- forms 38 adenosine triphosphate molecules per glucose molecule metabolized
- results in more energy for use by the cell
- requires the presence of oxygen