Topic 1: Muscular-skeletal Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Topic 1: Muscular-skeletal Anatomy Deck (32)
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1

Ossification

the process of bone formation, the conversion of cartilage into bone

2

Long bone

longer than they are wide
works as levers (used with bones in the arms and legs)
long cylindrical shaft, with enlarged ends
essential for movement

3

Short bone

cube shaped bones
small and compact
provide strength for intricate movements
carpal and tarsal bones

4

Flat bone

have curved surfaces
vary from thick to thin
protects organs
allow muscle attachment
skull, ribs, sternum and scapula

5

Irregular bone

all other bones that do not fall into the other categories
they have varied size, shape and surface area
include vertebral bones

6

Apply anatomical terminology to the location of bones

Anterior, front side of the body, also known as ventral.
Posterior, back side of the body, also known as the dorsal.
Distal, farthest end from the trunk or head.
Proximal, closest part nearest the trunk or head.
Inferior, below also, toward the feet.
Superior, above or near the head, also known as cranial.
Lateral, away from the midline.
Medial, toward the midline.

7

Cartilage

a firm, smooth, non vascular connective tissue
adds protection by shock absorption

8

Ligament

connect bone to bone to form a joint
strong, fibrous bands of connective tissue that link bones or structures together
provide stability to joints at rest and at movement
some ligament prevent movement in certain directions

9

Tendon

connect muscles to bone
round band of connective tissue
without tendons, it would be impossible for us to move the way that we do
connect the muscle which enables movement to the bone which adds stability

10

Joint

"A joint occurs where two or more bones articulate"

11

Fixed joints

very stable
allow no observable movement
bones are often joined by strong fibers called sutures (sutures of the cranium)

12

Cartilaginous

allows slight movement: due to slight compression of cartilage
the ends of bones, at the joint, are covered with white pads of fibrocartilage
they act as shock absorbers

13

Synovial joints

most common type of joints
allow a wide range of movement
they are subdivided according to movement possibilities (1.1.10)
characterized by the presence of a joint capsule and cavity lined with synovial membrane (1.1.9)

14

Gliding joint

between the tarsal bones and carpal bones
Usually flat or slightly curved bones,, slide across each other
Least amount of movement of all the synovial joints.
Used for bending of the wrist in a baseball hit

15

Hinge joint

elbow or knee joint
The articular surfaces have been fused together so that movement is only permitted in one direction
The articular surfaces are joined by strong ligaments
Movement is only allowed in one plane (extension / flexion)
Extending the leg when striking a football to score a goal
Extending the arm when making a hit in boxing

16

Hinge joint

elbow or knee joint
The articular surfaces have been fused together so that movement is only permitted in one direction
The articular surfaces are joined by strong ligaments
Movement is only allowed in one plane (extension / flexion)
Extending the leg when striking a football to score a goal
Extending the arm when making a hit in boxing

17

Pivot joint

Radioulnar Joint
Bottom of the skull
Rounded surface of one bone rolls around a ring formed by bone and ligament
Heading a football

18

Condyloid joint

Wrist joint
A ball shaped bone fits into a cup
Serving in tennis where the wrist is primarily used

19

Saddle joint

The thumb
Saddle shaped bone fits into a bone shaped like the legs
can move up and down and side to side
Gripping a tennis racket

20

Ball and socket

Shoulder joint
Hip joint
A sphere shaped bone fits into the rounded cavity of the other covered in cartilage to prevent friction
High range of movement
Movement coming from the hip in kicking a football

21

Contractility

ability of muscle to shorten

22

Extensibility

ability of muscle to lengthen

23

Elasticity

ability of muscle to return to normal size

24

Atrophy

the wasting away of muscle tissue

25

Hypertrophy

the increase in size of muscle tissue

26

Controlled by nerve stimuli

requires an impulse or recognition to initiate movement

27

Fed by capillaries

blood will be redistributed to muscles when they are working and require more oxygen

28

Skeletal muscle

Under voluntary control, has a striated appearance. Has tendons that attach mostly to bone. Main function of this type of muscle is to move the skeleton

29

Cardiac muscle

Also known as heart muscle. Also striated but under involuntary control. Contracts without you having to think about it

30

Smooth muscle

Lines the walls of blood vessels and hollow organs such as the stomach and intestines. Also involuntary.