Flashcards in Topic 5: Skill in Sport Deck (86)
The consistent production of goal orientated movements, which are learned and specific to the task.
Describe the different types of skill
-cognitive: Ability to solve problems by thinking
-perceptual: process by -which you sense things and interpret them
-motor- a voluntary body movement with a predetermined end results
-perceptual motor: involves the thought, interpretation and movement of skill
-Gross: large movements using large muscles or involving whole muscle groups; movements such as rolling over, kicking, flipping
-Fine: small and intricate movements, using small muscles often at the extremities; such as fingers, toes, wrists and tongues
-Open: a skill performed in an unstable environment, where the environmental stimuli determines the initiation of the movement
-Closed: performed in a stationary environment, and it highly controlled by the individual, who dictates the initiation. Often easier.
-Discrete: brief and defined actions that have a definitive start and end to their movement. Single, specific actions; such as a penalty kick
-Serial: a sequence of discrete skills joined together to create a greater movement, such as a triple jump
-Continuous: has no obvious beginning or end, actions are repeated in a cyclical form, such as running, can be stopped throughout the performance
Externally paced-internally paced
-Externally paced: the environment (including opponents) control the pace at which the skill is executed, these factors will affect the performance and must be taken into account by the performer. Typically open skills.
-Internally paced: performer dictates the rate of speed that the skills are performed, often comprise of closed skills (javelin throw)
-Individual: skills performed in isolation, like a high jump
-Coactive: skills that may be performed in unison with other competitors, but do not involve direct confrontation or contact, eg. swimming
-Interactive: skills performed where others are directly involved, such as game sports like rugby or football
Ability refers to a general train or capacity of the individual that is related to the performance and performance potential of a variety of skills or tasks
Way in which we notice significant things that are happening around us and how quickly and effectively we make decisions about how to deal with them.
For example it is the way in which:
1. You make sense of the information you receive from the environment ie. to perceive it, interpret it and identify elements in it which are important, for eg. whether the ball is spinning or not, what the flight path of the shuttle is, whether there is a gap in the defence which can be exploited.
2. Recognition and interpretation relies on previous experience and memory of that experience.
3. Decision making decide what to do - muscles then need to carry out the required movement.
Personal characteristics or enduring traits which, affect an individuals output
a combination of perceptual and motor abilities
Capability to process, interpret and use sensory stimuli for performing a task .
Fleishman's Physical Proficiency-Health related
-Gross body co-ordination
-Gross body equilibrium
Fleishman's Perceptual Motor abilities-Skill related
Speed of movement
"way of doing". In the performance of a specific sports skill it is defined as the "the way in which that sports skill is performed".
State the relationship between ability, skill and technique
Skill = ability + technique
Discuss the relationship between a skilled and a novice performer: Consistency
-Skilled: would be very consistent as they are an expert (autonomous) in their sport
-Novice: would have many errors and not yet be consistent as they are still in the learning (cognitive or associative) stage
Discuss the relationship between a skilled and a novice performer: Accuracy
-Skilled: more likely to be accurate, for same reasons as above
-Novice: less accurate in their performance as they are less consistent and skilled
Discuss the relationship between a skilled and a novice performer: Control
-Skilled: will have more control in their movements as they have stored muscle memory from completing the action so many times
-Novice: will have less control, comes with lack of consistency and accuracy, as they have not had great time for practice
Discuss the relationship between a skilled and a novice performer: Learned
-Skilled: they will be knowledgable on their sport and technique
-Novice: may need assistance in understanding correct technique
Discuss the relationship between a skilled and a novice performer: Efficiency
-Skilled: will be able to achieve desired goal much quicker than a novice player
-Novice: will take a long time to reach desired goal
Discuss the relationship between a skilled and a novice performer: Goal-directed
-Skilled: will know exactly what they want to produce and what steps are needed to get there
-Novice: may know what they want to achieve but not the steps to get there
Discuss the relationship between a skilled and a novice performer: Fluency
-Skilled: difficult skills will look effortless and smooth
-Novice: will look erratic and uncontrolled
Describe a simple model of information processing
In response to input stimuli, the performer perceives the stimulus, and recounts by executing an appropriate output, after their brain goes through the decision making process. Feedback is then often given, so that the response can be altered to be made better if necessary.
Example: A penalty kick is about to take place, the goalie observes the angle of the kicker (input), makes a decision on where to dive (decision making) and follows with a diving movement (output). Terminal feedback on the movement is applied for the next shot.
Describe Welford's model of information processing
Welford's Model (1968) includes:
Sensory output: Exteroceptors
Exteroceptors provide information about the external environment, like touch, pressure, temperature, light, sound, taste, smell etc. Sometimes receptors sensing light, sound and smell, which provide information about the distant environment, have been called telereceptors.
Sensory output: Introceptors
Pass information from within the body’s internal organs such as the heart and lungs to the brain via the nervous system. This helps to regulate the various functions of the body and cater for the changing demands placed upon it. Kinaesthetic information or Proprioception (body awareness) - the inner sense within the muscles, tendons and joints, which gives automatic internal information about the position of joints and the tension in the muscles.
Sensory output: Proprioceptors
Proprioceptors provide information about the position and posture of our body in space. They sense stimuli from the muscles, tendons and the joints as well from the vestibular apparatus.
seeing the ball or the opponent; for eg, picking up the flight of the shuttle cock coming over the net in badminton
hearing the call of a team-mate or the sound of the ball on the racket