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Flashcards in Option A: Optimising Physiological Performance Deck (64)
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• The systematic, repeated performance of structures exercise sessions over a period of time, with the achievement of a specific goal in mind.
• Type, duration and intensity vary depending on the goal.
• Crucial for optimising physical performance.
• Unsuitable training can also be detrimental to performance.


Under training

• Not doing enough to generate the required physical adaptations.
• Too little, too short, not hard enough.


Over training

• Attempting to do more than physically/mentally able to over a prolonged period of time.
• Will be detrimental to health and performance.
• Could be career threatening.


Over reaching

• Placing stress on the body beyond current level of tolerance.
• Degree required but needs to be managed carefully.
• Short-tern decrease in performance possible-transient overtraining.


Distinguish between training, overtraining and overreaching.

Training is performing exercise in an organized manner on a regular basis with a specific goal in mind (cross reference with 6.2). Overtraining is when an athlete attempts to do more training than he or she is able to physically and/or mentally tolerate.
Overtraining results in a number of symptoms that are highly individualized.
Overreaching is transient over-training, placing stress on the body beyond current level of tolerance.


Strength and resistance training

Description: making use of the gym equipment and using external resistance to improve muscular strength and endurance.
Benefits: Can isolate particular muscle groups to focus on. In a controlled setting, easy to manipulate the weight desired.
Safety: Correct technique must be used or else it will create negative effects and increase the risk of injury.


Circuit training

Description: Short time spent at many different types of exercises. High intensity
Benefits: can be general training or be made to suit specific components of fitness. Can be made to use no equipment, interesting as there is a wide ranger of activities - higher motivation.
Safety: needs a large area for stations to be set up. If done in close confines it is more likely for an accident to occur.


Continuous training

Description: aerobic training for long periods of time. Could be an hour long jog or a extensive cycle.
Benefits: Improves stamina which is important for many sport situation. No equipment needed and can be done anywhere.
Safety: needs to make sure that it doesn't surpass what the body can handle



Description: using various methods of training in a single session
Benefits: can train more than one type of fitness at once. Avoids tedium.
Safety: need to make sure the proper technique is used in the equipment


Interval Training

• Involves period of high intensity work interspersed with low intensity ‘recovery’ phases.
• Can be used for any type of CV exercise.
• Altering the variables (intensity, duration, rest periods) can tailor the workout to the individual needs.


Flexibility training

• Systematic stretching pf the muscles, tendons and connective tissues.
• Results in an increased RoM-advantages of greater forces applied.
• Can be done to:
o Correct low flexibility.
o Increase flexibility to improve performance.
o Reduce risk of, or aid recovery from, injury.
• Uses different types of stretching.
o Static stretching:
Target muscle stretched to point of mild discomfort and held- post exercise as part of cool down.
o Active stretching:
Muscle is held statically in a stretched position via contraction of opposite muscle.
o Dynamic stretching:
Target muscles are moved in a controlled fashion using repeated movements through the RoM.
o Ballistic stretching:
Repeated bouncing motion at point of peak stretch, attempting to force muscle beyond normal RoM.
o Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching:
Usually assisted, stretch held at limit (static), brief relaxation then push a little further.
o These can be seen as detrimental to performance and have a high risk of injury.


Fartlek training

• Combines interval and continuous training.
• Not regimented, athlete can regulate how they work according to how they feel.
-good for improving aerobic capacity and cardiovascular endurance, because instead of doing a continuous run at a continuous pace, one uses a slow-pace period to recover. therefore body becomes more able to cope with fatigue.


Plyometric training

Plyometric training:
• Fast, powerful, short duration movements (bounding/jumping).
• Designed to increase the speed and force of muscle contractions.
• Suited to power athletes.
• Improves explosive, forceful sporting activities.
• Involves rapid stretching of the muscle followed by an immediate, forceful, shortening of the same muscle.
• This movement activates a stretch reflex within the muscle, causing a contraction to prevent injury.
• Combined with the forceful contraction, by the athlete, large forces are produced.
• Fatigue to a major factor, long rest periods are requires to maintain effectiveness.


Over training syndrome

Overtraining syndrome (OTS)
A variable condition-different to the individual
• Over 80 symptoms have been identifies-hard to diagnose.
• Can often be the same as for other illnesses/conditions so very difficult to diagnose.
o Often only done so after exclusion of everything else.
• Hard to study as evidence is limited- difficult to pinpoint. Induce problem to get accurate information.
• Ethical implications of inducing overtraining-running risk of doing serious long term damage to healthy individuals.
• Indicators:
o Changes (increases) in resting HR (more accurately observed while sleeping)
o Chronic muscle soreness-DOMS, lasts 25-72 hours, not always alleviated by rest and recovery.
o Reduced immune function-frequent upper-respiratory tract infections, also seen in appropriately trained athletes.
o Sleep disturbance-not sleeping or restless sleep.

=when an athlete attempts to do more training than they are physically or mentally capable of tolerating



• Difficult to pinpoint the cause.
• Physiological or psychological?
• Due to single training session/another condition?


Decreased appetite

• Due to alterations in brain chemistry
• Issues-not going to be able to recover and repair properly


Sudden, unexplained decrease in performance

• Females less susceptible than males
• More than one form been proposed
o Sympathetic-effects athletes involved in short duration, explosive sports. (Rare)
o Parasympathetic-effects endurance athletes involved in low intensity, long duration events- Armstrong and VanHeest (2002).
• Understanding limited due to insufficient research.



the organization of training throughout a season so that an optimal physiological and psychological peak can be reached. In its simplest form periodization consists of 3 stages:
Resting Phase or Transition (Post season)
Pre-season (1) Preparation and (2) Pre competition
Competitive Season

How one organizes training over a time frame of a year in order to reach peak at the desired time during the most important competition of their season.



• Preparing to perform at maximum level.
• Physical, psychological, technical and tactical.
• 3-6 months, sport/athlete dependent
• start with general->specific preparation (Bompa 1999)



• maintain performance
• focus on maintaining fitness and developing skills and tactics-much more small sided games, practicing set games, understanding opponents.
• competition experience.



• Recovery & Physical
o Psychological and physical.
• Need to maintain fitness levels too.
• 3-4 weeks depending on sport/athlete.
• encourage some different activities-not about doing nothing.



• the annual plan that aims to peak during the competition phase/period.
• Includes all three parts of the year.



• a period of 2-3 weeks within the macrocycle.
• Depends on sport
• Focuses on the development of the same physical adaptations.



• Typically a week
• Planned according to where it comes within


The production of heat

• Energy from the Sun (via consumption of plants and animals)
• Food is primarily composed of: H, O, N, C
• Store energy as ATP
• Muscle contraction is only about 20% efficient.
• Therefore, need to remove other 80% as heat-to avoid an increase in core body temperature.
• Shell temperature may fluctuate between 1 and 6, depending on ambient temperature.


Measuring body temperature

• Ear thermistor
• Mercury thermometer
• Rectal thermometer
• Gastrointestinal radio pill (when swallowed and gives off a radio signal-expensive)



• Controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain.
• A process to remove latent heat, produced as a result of the skeletal muscles contracting.
• If this is imbalance:
-Hyperthermia (TC above 39c)
• Sweating, blood vessels move closer to skin (vasodilation).
• Living in extreme conditions:
-increased tolerance

• Reducing temperature is about removing the heat from the core, via the blood and transferring it to the environment. 4 ways:
1. Evaporation
2. Convection
3. Conduction
4. Radiation



• Through the body tissue to the surface of the body and to the clothing, air or water (in direct contact with skin).
• The rate of loss is dependent on the temperature gradient between the skin and he surrounding surface.
In most hot and humid situations accounts for less than 2% of heat loss



• Moving heat from one place or another by the motion of air (or water).
• Blood transfers heat by convection from deep tissues to the skin.
• If air movement is minimal, it warms next to the skin-air around skin warms up and you’ll warm up=reduced heat loss.
• If cool air continually replaced=increased heat loss.
• Significant: cold, windy days, cold lakes. Difference is maintained, loss heat very quickly.



• The transfer of energy waves; sent from one object, absorbed by another.
• We absorb radiant heat energy when temperature of the environment in higher than skin temperature.
• Reflection of sunlight form snow, sand or water can be warming.